ចង់វែង

ក្នុងថ្នាក់រៀនមួយនា ចុងសប្ដាហ៍នេះអ្នកគ្រូបានដើរឆែកមើលក្រចកដៃជើងរបស់សិស្សដើម្បី ដាក់ពិន្ទុ លើវិញ្ញាសាមួយដែលអ្នកគ្រូបានកំណត់ថា “អនាម័យនាំមកនូវសុខភាព”…

អ្នកគ្រូ ៖ សុភី! កាត់ខ្លីបានល្អណាស់ អ្នកគ្រូឲ្យ ១០ ពិន្ទុ!
សុភី ៖ អរគុណអ្នកគ្រូ!
អ្នកគ្រូ ៖ ឆ្លូញ ក៏កាត់បានខ្លីដែរ តែទុកសក់វែងពេក អ្នកគ្រូឲ្យ ៨ពិន្ទុ!
ឆ្លួញ ៖ អរគុណអ្នកគ្រូ!
អ្នកគ្រូ ៖ ចុះកល្យាណ ម៉េចក៏ទុកក្រចកវែងម្លេះ?
កល្យាណ ៖ ខ្ញុំចង់ទុកឲ្យវែងជាងអ្នកគ្រូ! ព្រោះក្រចកអ្នកគ្រូមិនសូវវែងផង ស្អាតយ៉ាងនេះហើយ ចុះទំរាំទុកវែងជាងនេះទៀត…អស់ទាស់តែម្ដង…
អ្នកគ្រូ ៖ !!!???

ដកស្រង់ចេញពី http://trajoke.blogsome.com/

រក​ការងារ​ធ្វើ

ផ្លយ ៖ សួស្ដី ផ្លូញ មួយ​រយៈ​នេះ​ដូច​ជា​មិន​សូវ​បាន​​ជួប​មុខ​ឯង?
ផ្លូញ ៖ តាំង​ពី​ទទួល​សញ្ញាប័ត្រ​មក​រត់​រក​ការងារ​ធ្វើ​មិន​បាន​សោះ​សំឡាញ់
ផ្លយ ៖ ក្រែង​ល៏ ឯង​រើស​រក​តែ​ការងារ​ល្អៗ បាន​ប្រាក់​ច្រើន​ទេ​ដឹង?
ផ្លូញ ៖ មិន​រើស​ណាស់ណា​ទេ ស្អី​ក៏​បាន ឲ្យ​តែ​ចំ​កន្លែង​ខ្លាញ់​ ល្មម​រស់​នៅ​សមរម្យ​ដូច​គេ​ដូច​ឯង​ទៅ​ជា​ការ​គ្រប់គ្រាន់​ណាស់​ហើយ…
ផ្លយ ៖ ចំ​កណ្ដាល​កៅឪ​ហើយ បង​ជីដូន​មួយ​គ្នា​ទើប​និង​បើក​ហាង​គុយ​ទាវ​ពិសេស គេ​ត្រូវ​ការ​អ្នក​លាង​ចាន ២-៣នាក់ ចំ​គ្នា​ជួយ​និយាយ​ឲ្យ…!
ផ្លូញ ៖ ពុទ្ធោ! ទីនោះ​ឬ កន្លែង​ខ្លាញ់…?
ផ្លយ ៖ !!!???

ដកស្រង់ចេញពី http://trajoke.blogsome.com/

គ្មាន​វាចា​នឹង​ថ្លែង

លោកគ្រូ​ ចំណូល​គាត់​ចូល​ចិត្ត​កីឡា​ណាស់ ថ្ងៃ​នេះ​នៅ​ក្នុង​ថ្នាក់​រៀន គាត់​បាន​ឲ្យ​សិស្ស​សរសេរ​ពី​ចំណាប់អារម្មណ៍​ស្ដី​អំពី​កីឡា​បាល់ទាត់​មួយ​ ក្រុម ។
លោកគ្រូ ៖ តើ​ប្អូនៗ​ធ្លាប់​មើល​ការ​ប្រកួត​បាល់ទាត់​ទេ?
សិស្ស ក ៖ បាទ! លោកគ្រូ ធ្លាប់!
លោកគ្រូ ៖ បើ​ដូច្នេះ​សូម​ប្អូនៗរៀប​រាប់​អំពី​លទ្ធផល​នៃការ​ប្រកួតរបស់​ក្រុម​​នីមួយៗ ដែល​ប្អូន​ធ្លាប់​ទៅ​ទស្សនា!
សិស្ស​ម្នាក់ៗ​រៀបរាប់​ល្អ​ឥត​ខ្ចោះ នៅ​សល់​តែ​ប្លោក​វា​ក្រោក​ឈរ​ អេះ​ក្បាល ។
លោកគ្រូ ៖ ម៉េច​ក៏​ប្អូន​មិន​រៀបរាប់…?
ប្លោក ៖ រៀប​រាប់​អត់​ចេញទេ​លោកគ្រូ…
លោកគ្រូ ៖ ម៉េច​អញ្ចឹង?
ប្លោក ៖ ព្រោះ​ពេល​កំពុង​ប្រកួត ខ្ញុំ​កើត​ខ្យល់គ អត់​បាន​តាម​ដាន!
លោកគ្រូ ៖ ???

ដកស្រង់ចេញពី http://trajoke.blogsome.com/

គាត់ចូលចិត្តអ្វី?

ឧកញ៉ា ៖ លោកជំទាវមកផ្ទះខ្ញុំទាំងព្រឹកមានការអ្វីដែរ?
ជំទាវ ៖ តើលោកឧកញ៉ាអាចដឹងទេថា មូលហេតុអ្វីដែលប្ដីខ្ញុំមិនសូវបាយផ្ទះ?
ឧកញ៉ា ៖ អាព្រើលជាពួកម៉ាកខ្ញុំតាំងពីនៅរៀនម្លេះ រឿងអីដែលខ្ញុំមិនដឹងនោះ…
ជំទាវ ៖ សូមលោកជួយប្រាប់ខ្ញុំផង ក្រែងខ្ញុំមានវិធីអាចជួយកែកុនគាត់បាន!
ឧកញ៉ា ៖ ឆ្នាំនេះអាព្រើល និងខ្ញុំអាយុ ៦៥ឆ្នាំហើយ វានិងខ្ញុំប្រៀបបានដូចជាគោចាស់អញ្ចឹង គឺចូលចិត្តតែស្មៅខ្ចីៗណ៎ា…លោកជំទាវ!
ជំទាវ ៖ អូ! អញ្ចឹងទេឬ? គាត់បាក់ធ្មេញមុខអស់ដូចគោមែន ចាំទៅដល់ផ្ទះ ខ្ញុំនឹងទៅទិញស្មៅទន្សាយទុកឲ្យគាត់ស៊ី កុំឲ្យគាត់ពិបាកទៅរកស៊ីនៅខាងក្រៅទៀត!
ឧកញ៉ា ៖ ទេ! លោកជំទាវ…កុំ…កុំ…

ដកស្រង់ចេញពី http://trajoke.blogsome.com/

អាចោរម្រាយ

មីង​ក្រូត​ជាមនុស្ស​ដែល​ពូកែ​ខាង​ ជេរម្រាយ​រក​លេខ​ដាក់​គ្មាន ។ ជេរ​ប្តី​ក៏​អាចោរម្រាយ ជេរកូន​ក៏​អាចោរម្រាយ…ថ្ងៃណា​ក៏​អាចោរម្រាយ​ដែរ ។ថ្ងៃ​នេះ​ពេល​ មិត្តភ័ក្ដិ​ប្ដី​គាត់​មក​លេង មីងក្រូត​មិនដឹង​ជា​ទាស់​ចិត្ត​អ្វី ក៏​ស្រែក​ជេរប្ដី​ថា អាចោរម្រាយ ចំពោះ​មុខ​ភ្ញៀវ ប្ដី​គាត់​ខឹង​ណាស់ ក៏​ស្ទុះ​ទៅ​ដាក់​មួយ​ដៃ​ផូង ។ មីងក្រូត​អុកគូថ​ទៅ​ដី រួច​ស្រែក ៖

អាចោរម្រាយ…

រួច ​ក៏​ដួល​សន្លប់ ។ មិត្តភ័ក្តិ និង​ប្ដី​ភ័យ​ណាស់​រត់​ទៅ​រក​ប្រេង​កូឡា ​លាប​រឹត ធ្វើ​ចលនា​ឲ្យ​បេះដូង​ដើរ​ស្រួល មួយ​សន្ទុះក្រោយ​មក​ មីងក្រូត បើក​ភ្នែក​ព្រឹមៗ…​រួច​គាត់​ស្ទុះ​ងើប ហើយ​ស្រែក៖

អាចោរម្រាយ

!!!???

From http://trajoke.blogsome.com/

Phnom Penh Postal Codes

Phenum Penh City Tourist Map

General Post Office 12000
Russei keo 12100
Phnom Penh Tthmei 12101
Ttuk Tthlar 12102
Khmounh 12103
Russei Keo 12104
Ttoul Ssang Kè 12105
Kilometre 6 12106
Chrang Chamres 1 12107
Chrang Chamres 2 12108
Ssvay Pak 12109
Chroy Changva 12110
Prek Ttasek 12111
Prek Lleap 12112
Khan Toulkok 12150
Boengkâk 1 12151
Boengkâk 2 12152
Phsardépo 1 12153
Phsardépo 2 12154
Phsardépo 3 12155
Tuk Llaak 1 12156
Tuk Llaak 2 12157
Tuk Llaak 3 12158
Phsar Ddoeumkor 12159
Boengsalang 12160
Khan Daun Penh 12200
Ssraas Chak 12201
Wat Phnom 12202
Phsar Chas 12203
Phsar Kandal 1 12204
Phsar Kandal 2 12205
Chey Chumneas 12206
Chak Ttomuk 12207
Phsar Tthmei 1 12208
Phsar 2 12209
Phsar 3 12210
Boeng Raing 12211
Khan 7 Makara 12250
Monorom 12251
Mittapheap 12252
Veal Vong 12253
Orussei 1 12254
Orussei 2 12255
Orussei 3 12256
Orussei 4 12257
Boeng Prolit 12258
Khan Chamkarmorn 12300
Ttonle Basak 12301
Boengkengkang 1 12302
Boengkengkang 2 12303
Boengkengkang 3 12304
Boeng Ttrabek 12305
Ttumnup Ttuk 12306
Phsar Ddoeum Tthkov 12307
Ttoul Ssvay Prey 1 12308
Prey 2 12309
Ttum Poung 1 12310
Poung 2 12311
Olympic 12312
Meanchey 12350
Boeng Ttumpun 12351
Sstung Meanchey 12352
Chak Aangré Krom 12353
Chak Lleu 12354
Chbar Aampeou 1 12355
Chbar 2 12356
Niroth 12357
Prek Pra 12358
Dang Kor 12400
Dang Kor 12401
Ttrapeang Krasaing 12402
Kokroka 12403
Phleung Chhésrotés 12404
Chom Chao 12405
Kakap 12406
Porng Ttuk 12407
Prey Veng 12408
Ssamrong 12409
Prey Ssar 12410
Kraing Tthnoung 12411
Kraing Pongro 12412
Prataslang 12413
Ssac Ssampeou 12414
Cheung Ek 12415

ដកស្រង់ចេញពី http://yuljet.blogspot.com/2008/06/phnom-penh-postal-codes.html

All Khmer Dictionary វចនានុក្រម ខ្មែរ – អង់គ្លេស

វចនានុក្រម ខ្មែរ – អង់គ្លេស អង់គ្លេស – ខ្មែរ

អាន វចនានុក្រម ២០០៩ សាកល្បង

ចេញថ្ងៃទី៖ ០៤ មេសា ២០០៩

វចនានុក្រម អាន ២០០៩ បង្កើតដោយ developer និងសិស្សរបស់អាន ។ យើងទាំងអស់គ្នាជាជនជាតិខ្មែរ ។

ANT Dictioanry 2009

លក្ខណៈពិសេស

  • ខ្មែរ – អង់គ្លេស
  • អង់គ្លេស – ខ្មែរ
  • អង់គ្លេស – អង់គ្លេស
  • ពាក្យបច្ចេកទេសទូទៅ
  • តារាងរាយនាមប្រទេស
  • គណិតវិទ្យា និង ហិរញ្ញវត្ថុ

ដើម្បីប្រើចុចទីនេះ ស្វែងរកពាក្យ (បើកប្រើអនឡៃន៍)

វចនានុក្រម ខ្មែរ – អង់គ្លេស

  • មានរហូតដល់ ៥៣៦៦៤ ពាក្យ
  • ប្រើប្រាស់ ខ្មែរយូនីកូដ
  • ស្វែងរកពាក្យយ៉ាងលឿនដោយមិនចាំបាច់ប្តូរ keyboard
  • ស្វែងរកនិយមន័យយ៉ាងច្រើនក្នុងវចនានុក្រមផ្សេងទៀត
  • ពាក្យភាសាអង់គ្លេសទាំងអស់អាចបកប្រែបានយ៉ាងងាយដោយចុច ទៅវចនានុក្រមផ្សេងទៀតដូចជា
    • អង់គ្លេស – អង់គ្លេស
    • អង់គ្លេស – ខ្មែរ

វចនានុក្រមអង់គ្លេស – ខ្មែរ

  • មានរហូតដល់ ៤៧៥០១ ពាក្យ
  • ប្រើប្រាស់ ខ្មែរយូនីកូដ
  • ពាក្យទាំងអស់អាចអានជាសំលេងបាន
  • ស្វែងរកនិយមន័យយ៉ាងច្រើនក្នុងវចនានុក្រមផ្សេងទៀត
  • ពាក្យភាសាអង់គ្លេសទាំងអស់អាចបកប្រែបានយ៉ាងងាយដោយចុច ទៅវចនានុក្រមផ្សេងទៀតដូចជា
    • អង់គ្លេស – អង់គ្លេស
    • អង់គ្លេស – ខ្មែរ

វចនានុក្រមអង់គ្លេស-អង់គ្លេស

  • មានរហូតដល់ ១៧៩៤៣០ ពាក្យ
  • ពាក្យទាំងអស់អាចអានជាសំលេងបាន
  • ស្វែងរកនិយមន័យយ៉ាងច្រើនក្នុងវចនានុក្រមផ្សេងទៀត
  • ពាក្យភាសាអង់គ្លេសទាំងអស់អាចបកប្រែបានយ៉ាងងាយដោយចុច ទៅវចនានុក្រមផ្សេងទៀតដូចជា
    • អង់គ្លេស – អង់គ្លេស
    • អង់គ្លេស – ខ្មែរ

ពាក្យបច្ចេកទេសទូទៅ

  • មានរហូតដល់ ៥៧២២៦ ពាក្យ
  • ប្រើប្រាស់ ខ្មែរយូនីកូដ
  • ពាក្យទាំងអស់អាចអានជាសំលេងបាន
  • ស្វែងរកនិយមន័យយ៉ាងច្រើនក្នុងវចនានុក្រមផ្សេងទៀត
  • ពាក្យភាសាអង់គ្លេសទាំងអស់អាចបកប្រែបានយ៉ាងងាយដោយចុច ទៅវចនានុក្រមផ្សេងទៀតដូចជា
    • អង់គ្លេស – អង់គ្លេស
    • អង់គ្លេស – ខ្មែរ
  • ប្រភេទ
    • ពាក្យបច្ចេកទេសទូទៅ
    • ច្បាប់

តារាងរាយនាមប្រទេស

  • រាយនាយប្រទេសជុំវិញពីភពលោក
  • រាយនាមពី A – Z

ពិជគណិតវិទ្យា

  • សមីការដីក្រេទី ២
  • សមីការដីក្រេទី ៣
  • សមីការដីក្រេទី ៤
  • ប្រភាគ
  • គណនាភាគរយ
  • ម៉ាទ្រីស

ធរណីមាត្រ

  • គណនាការេ
  • គណនាចតុកោណកែង
  • គណនារង្វង់
  • គណនាត្រីកោណ

ហិរញ្ញវត្ថុ

  • គណនាប្រាក់សន្សំ
  • គណនាការប្រាក់ផ្គូប
  • គណនាការប្រាក់ធម្មតា
  • ទូទាត់ប្រាក់បៀវត្សន៍

Khmer Program, The KMPlayer in Khmer Language

កម្មវិធីចាក់មេឌាជាភាសាខ្មែរ

ស្វាគមន៍​ប្រិយ​មិត្ត​ជា​ទី​មេត្រី ថ្ងៃ​នេះ​ខ្ញុំ​សូម​ណែនាំ​ឲ្យ​ប្រិយ​មិត្ត​ស្គាល់​អំពី​ថ្មី​មួយ​ដែល​មាន​ ឈ្មោះ​ថា កម្មវិធី​ចាក់​តន្ត្រី​ខ្មែរ ( KMP ) ប្រហែល​ជា​មាន​ប្រិយ​មិត្ត​មួយ​ចំនួន​ដែល​ធ្លាប់​គាំទ្រ​ទស្សនា​គេហទំព័រ​ របស់​ខ្ញុំ គឺ​ធ្លាប់​បាន​ស្គាល់​អំពី​កម្មវិធី​នេះ​កាល​ពី​កំណែ​ចាស់​ៗ​របស់​វា​ពី​មុន ​មក តែ​ឥឡូវ​នេះ​កម្ម​វិធី​នេះ​គឺ​បាន​កែប្រែ​នូវ​កំណែ​របស់​ខ្លួន​កាន់​តែ​ ប្រសើរ​ជា​ពេល​មុន គឺ​មាន​ន័យ​ថា​អាច​គាំទ្រ​ដំណើរ​ការ​ជា​កម្មវិធី​ខ្មែរ​យូនីកូដ​បាន​ប្រសើរ​ ជា​មុន​ៗ។ សម្រាប់​កម្មវិធី​នេះ​ផង​ដែរ​គឺ​មាន​ភាព​ងាយ​ស្រួល​ប្រើ មិន​ចាញ់​កម្មវិធី​ចាក់​តន្ត្រី​ដទៃ​ទៀត​ដូច​ជា MS Media player, Winnap…នោះ​ទេ ហើយ​កម្មវិធី​នេះ​ថែម​ទាំង​គាំទ្រ​ប្រភេទ​ឯកសារ​តន្ត្រី​ជា​ច្រើន​ដូច​ជា MP3, AVI, MPG, VOB…​ដោយ​ដំណើរ​ការ​កាន់​តែ​ប្រសើរ​ជា​កម្មវិធី​ផ្សេង​ៗ។ ក៏​ប៉ុន្តែ​សម្រាប់​កម្មវិធី​នេះ​ផង​ដែរ ខ្ញុំ​មិន​ទាន់​បាន​ធ្វើ​ការ​បញ្ចប់​ការ​បកប្រែ​ភាសា​ខ្មែរ​បាន​ទាំង​ស្រុង​ នូវ​ឡើយ​ទេ ប៉ុន្តែ​ខ្ញុំ​សន្យា​ថា​ប្រាកដ​ជា​នាំ​នូវ​កម្មវិធី​ដ៏​ល្អ​មួយ​នេះ មក​ដាក់​ឲ្យ​ប្រើ​ប្រាស់​ដោយ​សេរី​សម្រាប់​ប្រិយ​មិត្ត​ជា​មិន​ខាន បន្ទាប់​ពី​ខ្ញុំ​បញ្ចប់​ការ​ប្រលង​ថ្នាក់​ទី 12 របស់​ខ្ញុំ។ សូម​ធ្វើ​ការ​រង​ចាំ​រយះ​ពេល​ប៉ុន្មាន​ខែ​បន្ត​ទៀត​សិន ហើយ​ប្រសិន​បើ​ប្រិយ​មិត្ត​ចង់​បាន​កម្មវិធី​នេះ​យក​ទៅ​សាកល្បង សូម​ធ្វើ​ការ​តំណ​ភ្ជាប់​ទៅ​កាន់ ទាញ​យក Download! អរគុណ!​ចំពោះ​ការ​គាំទ្រ​គេហទំព័រ​របស់​ខ្ញុំ​មួយ​នេះ!

Angkor wat, The most well-know temple in Cambodia

Angkor Wat is located about 7 kilometers north of Siem Reap provincial town along Komai or Charles De Gaul Road. The temple was built in the early 12th century during the reign of King Suryavarman II2 (AD 1113-1150) is unrivaled in its beauty and state of preservation. It is an expression of Khmer art at its highest point of development.Some believed Angkor Wat was designed by Divakaraandita, the chief adviser and minister of the king, dedicating to Vishnu Brahmanism. The Khmers attribute the building of Angkor Wat to the divine architect Visvakarman. There has been considerable debate amongst scholars as to whether Angkor Wat was built as a temple or a tomb. Angkor Wat, according to Cœdés, is a replica of the universe in stone and represents an earthly model of the monument symbolizing the mythical Mount Meru, situated at the peaks of Meru, the outer wall to the mountains at the edge of the world, and the surrounding moat in the oceans beyond.

Originally, the temple was called Prasat Paramavishnuloka. However, the evolution of the name Angkor Wat can be drawn by history. The first proof existed in the 16th century, when the temple become a well-known Buddhist place. According to a 16th century inscription, its name was Preah Mohanokor Indrabrat Preah Visnuloka. In a 17th inscription , it was called Indrabratnokor Sreisodhara Vishnuloka3. Angkor Wat was a simple name to refer to this holy place. Khmer people, especially those living in and around Siem Reap, often refer to Angkor Toch. However, European authors decided on a common name, Angkor Wat. Nevertheless, its original name has not been forgotten and is known by many people.
Angkor Wat covers a rectangular area of about 200 hectares defined by a laterite rampart which is surrounded by a moat that is 200 meters wide. The perimeter of the rampart measures 5,5 kilometers. The moat is crossed by a huge causeway built of sandstone blocks 250 meters high. With its massive built by the gods rather than by man. The temple begins with a sandstone terrace in the shape of a across. Giant stone lions on each side of the terrace guard the monument. End of the causeways at the gopura4 with trees towers of varying heights, of which much of the upper sections have collapsed. A long, covered gallery with square columns and a vaulted roof extends along the moat to the left and right of the gopura.
The causeway leads to the cruciform gopura or entry towers. The gateways at ground level in each end of the gallery probably served as passages for elephants, horses, and carts, whereas the other entrances are accessed by step and lead onto the central promenade. From the entrance turn right and walk along the columned gallery to the end, where the quality of the carving and intricacy of decoration on the false door is of exceptional beauty.

To see more detail go to visit : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ankor_Wat

Khmer land that have lost in Thailand and Vietnam !

Cambodia in the ancent time was very big and contained a lot of provinces. But now? In the map we can see that Cambodia is very little country if we compare with Thailand, Laos and Vietnam. We have lost more than 120 000 Km2 in to Thailand and Vietnam.
This is the name list of the provinces that we have lost to Thailand (60 000 Km2)

  1. Nokor Reach จังหวัดนครราชสีมา
  2. Borey Rom จังหวัดบุรีรัมย์
  3. So Rin จังหวัดสุรินทร์
  4. Ton Borey จังหวัดธนบุรี
  5. Serey Saket ศรีสะเกษ
  6. Stung Crao จังหวัดสระแก้ว
  7. Chann Borey จังหวัดจันทบุรี
  8. Kok Khan ?
  9. Bachem Boreyจังหวัดปราจีนบุรี
  10. Trach จังหวัดตราด
  11. Sang Ket ?
  12. Ou Bun จังหวัดอุบลราชธานี

This is the name list of the provinces that we have lost to Vietnam (65 000 Km2)

  1. Phreah Tro Peang
  2. Srok Klang
  3. Mat Chrouck
  4. Kroe Moun Sor
  5. Pul Leav
  6. Tek Kmao
  7. Peam
  8. Prek Re Sey
  9. Roang Damrey
  10. Prey Norkor
  11. Toul Tamok
  12. Chang Va tro pang
  13. Srocatrey
  14. Mes
  15. Koh Korng
  16. Preah Sour Kear
  17. Psa Am Bes
  18. O Kab

And we also have lost two islands in to Vietnam su as

  1. Trol Island
  2. Trolach Island

ដកស្រង់ចេញពី http://thecambodia.blogspot.com/search/label/Khmer%20should%20Know

Mobile Phone networks in Cambodia

As the world technology going so quickly! In Cambodian people also use new technology especially mobile phone. These day there are network in Cambodia Such as

  • Cellcard 012, 017, 077, 089, 092
  • Smart Mobile 010,093,
  • Starcell 098
  • Excel 018
  • Cube [qb] 013, 083
  • Beeline 090
  • Metfone 097
  • Mfone 011,099,085
  • Hello 015, 016, 081

So now people have a lot of option to choose their mobile phone networks to use Because all of them always give a lot of benefit and the price are also competitive!

Why people walk with not stay arms?

ហេតុអ្វីបានជាពេលមនុស្សយើងដើរត្រូវបង់បោយ?

កាល​ពី​លើក​មុន​ខ្ញុំ​បាន​សួរ​អ្នក​រាល់​គ្នា ​ម្ដង​ហើយ ថា​ហេតុ​អ្វី​បាន​ជា​យើង​យោល​ដៃ​នៅ​ពេល​ដើរ ហើយ​ខ្ញុំ​ក៏​ទទួល​បាន​ចម្លើយ​ផ្សេងៗ​ខុសៗ​គ្នា។ ឥឡូវ​នេះ​ខ្ញុំ​សូម​បក​ស្រាយ​ជូន​ដើម្បី​អស់​ចម្ងល់។ ហេតុ​អ្វី​បាន​ជា​ការ​យោល​ដៃ​ក្នុង​ពេល​ដើរ​ជា​ការ​ចាំ​បាច់។ តាម​ពិត​ទៅ ក្រែង​ការ​យោល​ដៃ​ត្រូវ​ប្រើ​ថាម​ពល​សាច់​ដុំ​​ស្មា អញ្ចឹង​តើ​វា​មាន​ប្រយោជន៍​អី?

កាល​ពី​មុន​ គេ​បាន​សន្និដ្ឋាន​ថា​ការ​យោល​ដៃ​របស់​មនុស្ស​គឺ​ដោយ​សារ​តែ​តំណ​វិវត្តន៍​មក ​ពី​សត្វ​ស្វា ដែល​ដើរ​ដោយ​ជើង​បួន ដូច្នេះ​ហើយ​បាន​ជា​បន្សល់​ទុក​នូវ​ចលនា​ដូច្នេះ។ ប៉ុន្តែ​ថ្មីៗ​នេះ អ្នក​វិទ្យាសាស្ត្រ​បាន​លើក​យក​ទ្រឹស្ដី​ថ្មី​មួយ​ទៀត​បដិសេធ​នឹង​ទ្រឹស្ដី​ មុន​នេះ។ តាម​ការ​ពិសោធ បាន​បង្ហាញ​ឲ្យ​ដឹង​ថា ការ​យោល​ដៃ​នេះ​គឺ​ជា​ការ​ល្អ មិន​មែន​ជា​ការ​ខ្ជះ​ខ្ជាយ​ថាម​ពល​នោះ​ទេ។ តាម​ពិត​ ការ​យោល​ដៃ​ក្នុង​ពេល​ដើរ​ត្រូវ​ការ​ថាម​ពល​តែ​បន្តិច​បន្តួច​ប៉ុណ្ណោះ​ពី​ សាច់​ដុំ​ស្មា តែ​ប្រសិន​បើ​យើង​ដើរ​ដោយ​ទប់​ដៃ​ (មិន​យោល​ដៃ) នោះ​កំរិត​មេតាបូលីស​នឹង​កើន​​ឡើង​ដល់​ ១២% បើ​ប្រៀប​ធៀប​នឹង​លំយោល​ដៃ។

មួយ​វិញ​ទៀត លំយោល​ដៃ​ទៅ​មក​នេះ​ក៏​ជួយ​រក្សា​លំនឹង​ចលនា​ដើរ​របស់​យើង​ដែរ ដោយ​ជួយ​កាត់​បន្ថយ​ដំណើរ​ចុះ​ឡើង​របស់​ខ្លួន​ប្រាណ​ (ដូច​ដំណើរ​សត្វ​ “ភេនឃ្វីន” ) ដែល​ជា​ថាម​ពល​ប្រើ​ប្រាស់​សម្រាប់​ជើង​ក្រោម។ ប្រសិន​បើ​ដើរ​ដោយ​ទប់​ដៃ​ជាប់ នោះ​ចលនា​នេះ​នឹង​កើន​ឡើង​រហូត​ដល់​ ៦៣% ឯ​ណោះ។

ក្នុង​ករណី​ដែល​យើង​ដើរ​ដោយ​យោល​ដៃ​ខុស​ពី​ធម្មតា ពោល​គឺ​យោល​ដៃ​ស្ដាំ​ស្រប​ពេល​ឈាន​ជើង​ស្ដាំ និង​យោល​ដៃ​ឆ្វេង​ស្រប​នឹង​ជំហាន​ឆ្វេង យើង​សង្កេត​ឃើញ​ថា​ថាម​ពល​សាច់​ដុំ​ស្មា​នឹង​ថយ​ចុះ។ ប៉ុន្តែ​ផល​លំបាក​នោះ​គឺ​ថា កំរិត​មេតាបូលី​នឹង​កើត​ឡើង​មួយ​ភាគ​បួន។

ដូច្នេះ​ការ​យោល​ដៃ​គឺ​ជា​កត្តា​ធម្មជាតិ​មួយ​ល្អ​ណាស់​របស់​មនុស្ស។ វា​ប្រៀប​ដូច​ជា​ជួយ​សេដកិច្ឋ​ខ្លួន​ប្រាណ​យើង​អញ្ចឹង។

Pol Pot’s Beautiful Daughter Finished!

ដកស្រង់ចេញពី http://kienforcefidele.wordpress.com/
កូនស្រីដ៏ស្រស់ស្អាតរបស់ពល ពត
This book is about ghost. Written in Khmer Language. Do you know about Pol Pot? This is talk about the ghost of daughter of Pol Pot too because I just download it from http://kienforcefidele.wordpress.com/ and not yet finish reading it. But I think it is very interesting. Thank you for Fidele the owner of http://kienforcefidele.wordpress.com/ I’m not sure yet that what is it about. Do you want to know about it?

Do you want it?
The book about ghost!!! Khmer ghost!!!! After Pol Pot regime!!!
Okey download it here

FREE TUM TEAV book written in English

What `s new today? Yea! It is! Now may be all of you used to hear about TUM TEAV. TUM TEAV is a love novel of Cambodia which are very interesting and show about the Khmer culture in the ancient time.
Now I am very pleased to tell all you guys that I have found an E-Book of TUM TEAV in English is a Khmer boy `s blog name Fedele. I want to say thank to him very much.

I don’t want to describe more about it, but I want you to download it by yourself and try to understand everything in this story. But remember not to drop your tear….or……!!!!! TUM is a monk TEAV is a beautiful girl how can they love each other….? How about the future of them…….?

File name : tum-teav-in-english.pdf

File zise : 0.2 Mb

Glasses

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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“Glasses” can also be the plural of “glass“.
“Spectacles” redirects here. For other uses, see Spectacle (disambiguation).

A modern pair of prescription glasses with a half rim design.

French Empire gilt scissors glasses c.1805

Glasses (also called eyeglasses or spectacles) are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes, normally for vision correction, eye protection, or for protection from UV rays.

Modern glasses are typically supported by pads on the bridge of the nose and by temples placed over the ears. Historical types include the pince-nez, monocle, lorgnette, and scissors-glasses.

Eyeglass lenses are commonly made from plastic, including CR-39 and polycarbonate. These materials reduce the danger of breakage and weigh less than glass lenses. Some plastics also have more advantageous optical properties than glass, such as better transmission of visible light and greater absorption of ultraviolet light.[1] Some plastics have a greater index of refraction than most types of glass; this is useful in the making of corrective lenses shaped to correct various vision abnormalities such as myopia, allowing thinner lenses for a given prescription. Newer plastic lenses, called izon, can also correct for the higher order aberrations that naturally occur in the surface of our eye.[citation needed] These lenses create sharper vision for the people who have problems with sight and help with the halos, starbursts, and comet-tails often associated with night time driving glare.[citation needed] Wavefront guided LASIK surgery also corrects for the higher order aberrations.

Scratch-resistant coatings can be applied to most plastic lenses giving them similar scratch resistance to glass. Hydrophobic coatings designed to ease cleaning are also available, as are anti-reflective coatings intended to reduce glare, improve night vision and make the wearer’s eyes more visible.[2]

CR-39 lenses are the most common plastic lenses due to their low weight, high scratch resistance, and low transparency for ultra violet and infrared radiation. Polycarbonate and Trivex lenses are the lightest and most shatter-resistant, making them the best for impact protection,[1] though polycarbonate offers poor optics due to high dispersion, having a low Abbe number of 31.

Not all glasses are designed solely for vision correction but are worn for protection, viewing visual information (such as stereoscopy) or simply just for aesthetic or fashion values. Safety glasses are a kind of eye protection against flying debris or against visible and near visible light or radiation. Sunglasses allow better vision in bright daylight, and may protect against damage from high levels of ultraviolet light.

History of eyeglasses

Precursors

Detail of a portrait of Hugh de Provence, painted by Tomaso da Modena in 1352

The earliest historical reference to magnification dates back to ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs in the 8th century BC, which depict “simple glass meniscal lenses“. The earliest written record of magnification dates back to the 1st century AD, when Seneca the Younger, a tutor of Emperor Nero, wrote: “Letters, however small and indistinct, are seen enlarged and more clearly through a globe or glass filled with water”.[3] Emperor Nero is also said to have watched the gladiatorial games using an emerald as a corrective lens.[4]

Corrective lenses were said to be used by Abbas Ibn Firnas in the 9th century,[5] who had devised a way to produce very clear glass. These glasses could be shaped and polished into round rocks used for viewing and were known as reading stones. The earliest evidence of “a magnifying device, a convex lens forming a magnified image,” dates back the Book of Optics published by Alhazen in 1021. Its translation into Latin in the 12th century was instrumental to the invention of eyeglasses in 13th century Italy.[3]

Sunglasses, in the form of flat panes of smoky quartz, protected the eyes from glare and were used in China in the 12th century or possibly earlier. However, they did not offer any corrective benefits.[6]

Invention of eyeglasses

The ‘Glasses Apostle’ by Conrad von Soest (1403)

Around 1284 in Italy, Salvino D’Armate is credited with inventing the first wearable eye glasses.[7] The earliest pictorial evidence for the use of eyeglasses, however, is Tomaso da Modena’s 1352 portrait of the cardinal Hugh de Provence reading in a scriptorium. Another early example would be a depiction of eyeglasses found north of the Alpes in an altarpiece of the church of Bad Wildungen, Germany, in 1403.

Many theories abound for who should be credited for the invention of traditional eyeglasses. In 1676, Francesco Redi, a professor of medicine at the University of Pisa, wrote that he possessed a 1289 manuscript whose author complains that he would be unable to read or write were it not for the recent invention of glasses. He also produced a record of a sermon given in 1305, in which the speaker, a Dominican monk named Fra Giordano da Rivalto, remarked that glasses had been invented less than twenty years previously, and that he had met the inventor. Based on this evidence, Redi credited another Dominican monk, Fra Alessandro da Spina of Pisa, with the re-invention of glasses after their original inventor kept them a secret, a claim contained in da Spina’s obituary record.[8]

Seated apostle holding lenses in position for reading. Detail from Death of the Virgin, by the Master of Heiligenkreuz, ca. 1400-30 (Getty Center).

Other stories, possibly legendary, credit Roger Bacon with the invention. Bacon is known to have made one of the first recorded references to the magnifying properties of lenses in 1262,[9] though this was predated by Alhazen‘s Book of Optics in 1021.[3] Bacon’s treatise De iride (“On the Rainbow”), which was written while he was a student of Robert Grosseteste, no later than 1235, mentions using optics to “read the smallest letters at incredible distances”. While the exact date and inventor may be forever disputed, it is almost certain that spectacles were invented between 1280 and 1300 in Italy. These early spectacles had convex lenses that could correct both hyperopia (farsightedness), and the presbyopia that commonly develops as a symptom of aging. Nicholas of Cusa is believed to have discovered the benefits of concave lens in the treatment of myopia (nearsightedness). However, it was not until 1604 that Johannes Kepler published in his treatise on optics and astronomy, the first correct explanation as to why convex and concave lenses could correct presbyopia and myopia.

Later developments

A portrait of Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas, 1580–1645

The American scientist Benjamin Franklin, who suffered from both myopia and presbyopia, invented bifocals in 1784 to avoid having to regularly switch between two pairs of glasses.[10] The first lenses for correcting astigmatism were constructed by the British astronomer George Airy in 1825.[10]

Over time, the construction of spectacle frames also evolved. Early eyepieces were designed to be either held in place by hand or by exerting pressure on the nose (pince-nez). Girolamo Savonarola suggested that eyepieces could be held in place by a ribbon passed over the wearer’s head, this in turn secured by the weight of a hat. The modern style of glasses, held by temples passing over the ears, was developed in 1727 by the British optician Edward Scarlett. These designs were not immediately successful, however, and various styles with attached handles such as “scissors-glasses” and lorgnettes remained fashionable throughout the 18th and into the early 19th century.

In the early 20th century, Moritz von Rohr at Zeiss (with the assistance of H. Boegehold and A. Sonnefeld[11]), developed the Zeiss Punktal spherical point-focus lenses that dominated the eyeglass lens field for many years.

Despite the increasing popularity of contact lenses and laser corrective eye surgery, glasses remain very common, as their technology has improved. For instance, it is now possible to purchase frames made of special memory metal alloys that return to their correct shape after being bent. Other frames have spring-loaded hinges. Either of these designs offers dramatically better ability to withstand the stresses of daily wear and the occasional accident. Modern frames are also often made from strong, light-weight materials such as titanium alloys, which were not available in earlier times.

Modern Developments in the UK In 1958 The General Optical Council was created by Parliament in 1958 through the Opticians Act.

Before the Opticians Act, optometry and dispensing optics were not regulated professions. It was not until after the introduction of the National Health Service in 1948 that the then Health Minister and the Secretary of State for Scotland set up a Committee to determine whether a regulatory body should be created.

Some of the major high street opticians nowadays are Dollond & Aitchison, Boots Group, Specsavers & Vision Express. In 2005 Prescription glasses were sold online for the first time thus giving people the chance to bypass high street opticians and buy their glasses directly from the manufacturer, usually paying far less. Major firms in the online glasses industry today are Next Vision, Glasses Direct, Specsavers and Select Specs.

Types

Corrective

Seattle skyline as seen through a corrective lens, showing the effect of refraction.

Corrective lenses are used to correct refractive errors of the eye by modifying the effective focal length of the lens in order to alleviate the effects of conditions such as; nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia) or astigmatism. Another common condition in older patients is presbyopia which is caused by the eye’s crystalline lens losing elasticity, progressively reducing the ability of the lens to accommodate (i.e. to focus on objects close to the eye).

The power of a lens is generally measured in diopters. Over-the-counter reading glasses are typically rated at +1.00 to +3.25 diopters. Glasses correcting for myopia will have negative diopter strengths. Prescription lenses, made to conform to the prescription of an ophthalmologist or optometrist, are used to make prescription glasses, which are then verified correct using a professional lensmeter.

Pinhole glasses are a type of corrective glasses which do not use a conventional lens and are claimed to help correct the eye’s refractive error without introducing the image distortion of traditional lens-based glasses.

Safety

See also: Eye protection

Safety glasses are usually made with shatter-resistant plastic lenses to protect the eye from flying debris. Although safety lenses may be constructed from a variety of materials of various impact resistance, certain standards suggest that they maintain a minimum 1 millimeter thickness at the thinnest point, regardless of material. Safety glasses can vary in the level of protection they provide. For example, those used in medicine may be expected to protect against blood splatter while safety glasses in a factory might have stronger lenses and a stronger frame with additional shields at the temples. The lenses of safety glasses can also be shaped for correction.

Safety glasses with side shields

The American National Standards Institute has established standard ANSI Z87.1 for safety glasses in the United States, and similar standards have been established elsewhere.

OSHA provides guidance on the type of safety eyewear that should be used for a particular application.

Some safety glasses are designed to fit over corrective glasses or sunglasses. They may provide less eye protection than goggles or other forms of eye protection, but their light weight increases the likelihood that they will actually be used. Modern safety glasses tend to be given a more stylish design in order to encourage their use. Corrective glasses with plastic lenses can be used in the place of safety glasses in many environments; this is one advantage that they have over contact lenses.

There are also safety glasses for welding, which are styled like wraparound sunglasses, but with much darker lenses, for use in welding where a full sized welding helmet is inconvenient or uncomfortable. These are often called “flash goggles”, because they provide protection from welding flash.

Worker safety eyewear is available in various lens colors and/or with coatings to protect or enable eyesight in different lighting conditions, particularly when outdoors.

Nylon frames are usually used for protection eyewear for sports because of their lightweight and flexible properties. They are able to bend slightly and return to their original shape instead of breaking when pressure is applied to them. Nylon frames can become very brittle with age and they can be difficult to adjust.

Sunglasses

Main article: Sunglasses

Sunglasses may be made with either prescription or non-prescription lenses that are darkened to provide protection against bright visible light and, possibly, ultraviolet (UV) light. Photochromic lenses, which are photosensitive, darken when struck by UV light.

Light polarization is an added feature that can be applied to sunglass lenses. Polarization filters remove horizontally polarized rays of light, which can cause glare. Polarized sunglasses allow wearers to see into water when normally glare or reflected light would be seen. Polarized sunglasses may present some difficulties for pilots since reflections from water and other structures often used to gauge altitude may be removed, or instrument readings on liquid crystal displays may be blocked.

Yellow lenses increase color contrast and improve depth perception. Brown lenses are common among golfers, but cause color distortion.[citation needed] Blue, purple, and green lenses offer no real benefits to vision enhancement, and are mainly cosmetic.[citation needed] Some sunglasses with interchangeable lenses have optional clear lenses to protect the eyes during low light or night time activities and a colored lens with UV protection for times where sun protection is needed.

Sunglasses are often worn just for aesthetic purposes, or simply to hide the eyes. Examples of sunglasses that were popular for these reasons include teashades and mirrorshades.

3D glasses

The illusion of three dimensions on a two dimensional surface can be created by providing each eye with different visual information. Classic 3D glasses create the illusion of three dimensions when viewing specially prepared images. The classic 3D glasses have one red lens and one blue or cyan lens. 3D glasses made of cardboard and plastic are distributed at 3D movies. Another kind of 3D glasses uses polarized filters, with one lens polarized vertically and the other horizontally, with the two images required for stereo vision polarized the same way. Polarized 3D glasses allow for color 3D, while the red-blue lenses produce a dull black-and-white picture with red and blue fringes.

One kind of electronic 3D spectacles uses electronic shutters, while virtual reality glasses and helmets have separate video screens for each eye. A 3D effect can also be produced using LCD shutter glasses.[12]

Reading glasses

Magnifying lenses or generic spectacles that are used to treat mild presbyopia and hyperopia can be bought off the shelf. The use of individual prescriptions as determined by a qualified optician results in better optical performance of reading glasses.

Bifocals, trifocals and progressive lenses

As people age, their ability to focus is lessened and many decide to use multiple-focus lenses, bifocal or even trifocal to cover all the situations in which they use their sight. Traditional multifocal lenses have two or three distinct horizontal viewing areas, each requiring a conscious effort of refocusing. Some modern multifocal lenses, such as progressive lenses (known as “no-line bifocals”), give a smooth transition between these different focal points, unnoticeable by most wearers, while other glasses have lenses specifically intended for use with computer monitors at a fixed distance. People may have several pairs of glasses, one for each task or distance, with specific glasses for reading, computer use, television watching, and writing.

Extreme magnification (bioptics)

A form of glasses with extreme magnification to improve the distance vision of those with severe eyesight impairment, especially people with albinism, are known as bioptics or a bioptic telescope. They may take the form of self-contained glasses that resemble goggles or binoculars, or may be attached to existing glasses.

Fashion

United States senator Barry Goldwater in horn-rimmed glasses.

Glasses can be a major part of personal image and expression, from Groucho Marx and Buddy Holly to the extravagance of Elton John and Dame Edna Everage.

For some celebrities, glasses form part of their identity. United States Senator Barry Goldwater continued to wear lensless horn-rimmed glasses after being fitted with contact lenses because he was not recognizable without his trademark glasses. British soap star Anne Kirkbride had the same problem: her character on Coronation Street, Deirdre Barlow, became so well-known for her big frames that she was expected to wear them at social gatherings and in international tours, even though Kirkbride has always worn contact lenses. Comedian Drew Carey continued to wear glasses for the same reason after getting corrective laser eye surgery. British comedic actor Eric Sykes, who became profoundly deaf as an adult, wears glasses that contain no lenses; they are actually a bone-conducting hearing aid. Masaharu Morimoto wears glasses to separate his professional persona as a chef from his stage persona as Iron Chef Japanese. John Lennon wore his round-lens ‘Windsor’ spectacles from some of his time with the Beatles to his murder in 1980. The rock band Weezer is known for some of the members wearing thick-rimmed glasses.

Browline glasses were the standard for men in the 1950s and 1960s.

In popular culture, glasses were all the disguise Superman and Wonder Woman needed to hide in plain view as alter egos Clark Kent and Diana Prince, respectively. An example of halo effect is seen in the stereotype that those who wear glasses are intelligent or, especially in teen culture, even geeks and nerds. Some people who find that wearing glasses may look ‘nerdy’ turn to contact lenses or laser eye surgery, especially under peer pressure.

Another unpopular aspect of glasses is their inconvenience. Even through the creation of light frames, such as those made of titanium, very flexible frames, and new lens materials and optical coatings, glasses can still cause problems during rigorous sports. The lenses can become greasy or trap vapour when eating hot food, swimming, walking in rain or rapid temperature changes (such as walking into a warm building from cold temperatures outside), reducing visibility significantly. Scraping, fracturing, or breakage of the lenses require time-consuming and costly professional repair, though modern plastic lenses are almost indestructible and very scratch-resistant.

Rimless style

Three-piece rimless and semi-rimless glasses are common variations that differ from regular glasses in that their frames do not completely encircle the lenses. Three-piece rimless glasses have no frame around the lenses, and the bridge and temples are mounted directly onto the lenses. Semi-rimless (or half-rimless) glasses have a frame that only partially encircles the lenses (commonly the top portion). When the style was first introduced in the 1930s, lenses were screwed directly to the front of the frame; most modern variations feature the lenses held inside of the frame by high strength nylon wire,[13] although the semi-rimless style has been around since at least the 1940s. A rare and currently noncommercial variation are rimless and frameless glasses attached to a piercing at the bridge of a wearers nose.[14] Such glasses have the visual look of the pince-nez.

Glazing

Spectacle lenses are edged into the frame’s rim using glazing machines operated by ophthalmic technicians. The edging process begins with a trace being taken of the frame’s eye shape. In earlier days the trace was replicated onto a plastic pattern called a former. Nowadays the process is patternless and the shape is sent to the edger electronically.

The lens, in the form of a round uncut,[clarification needed] is positioned in the correct manner to match the prescription and a block is stuck to the lens and that block fits into a chuck in the edging machine. A diamond-coated wheel spins as the edger replicates the frame’s eye-shape to the uncut lens. A V-shaped bevel is applied to allow the edge of the lens to fit into the frame rim.

Hotel

Etymology

Corinthia Grand Hotel Royal, Budapest, Hungary

The word hotel is derived from the French hôtel (coming from hôte meaning host), which referred to a French version of a townhouse or any other building seeing frequent visitors, rather than a place offering accommodation. In contemporary French usage, hôtel now has the same meaning as the English term, and hôtel particulier is used for the old meaning. The French spelling, with the circumflex, was also used in English, but is now rare. The circumflex replaces the ‘s’ found in the earlier hostel spelling, which over time took on a new, but closely related meaning. Grammatically, hotels usually take the definite article – hence “The Astoria Hotel” or simply “The Astoria”.

Classification

A budget hotel in Malaysia

The cost and quality of hotels are usually indicative of the range and type of services available. Due to the enormous increase in tourism worldwide during the last decades of the 20th century, standards, especially those of smaller establishments, have improved considerably.[citation needed] For the sake of greater comparability, rating systems have been introduced, with the one to five stars classification being most common[citation needed] and with higher star ratings indicating more luxury. Hotels are independently assessed in traditional systems and these rely heavily on the facilities provided.[citation needed] Some consider this disadvantageous to smaller hotels whose quality of accommodation could fall into one class but the lack of an item such as an elevator would prevent it from reaching a higher categorization.[citation needed] In some countries, there is an official body with standard criteria for classifying hotels, but in many others there is none. There have been attempts at unifying the classification system so that it becomes an internationally recognized and reliable standard[citation needed] but large differences exist in the quality of the accommodation and the food within one category of hotel, sometimes even in the same country. The American Automobile Association (AAA) and their affiliated bodies use diamonds instead of stars to express hotel and restaurant ratings levels.

Historic hotels

Hotel Astoria and a statue of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia in front, in Saint Petersburg, Russia

Some hotels have gained their renown through tradition, by hosting significant events or persons, such as Schloss Cecilienhof in Potsdam, Germany, which derives its fame from the Potsdam Conference of the World War II allies Winston Churchill, Harry Truman and Joseph Stalin in 1945. The Taj Mahal Palace & Tower in Mumbai is one of India‘s most famous and historic hotels because of its association with the Indian independence movement. Some establishments have given name to a particular meal or beverage, as is the case with the Waldorf Astoria in New York City, United States where the Waldorf Salad was first created or the Hotel Sacher in Vienna, Austria, home of the Sachertorte. Others have achieved fame by association with dishes or cocktails created on their premises, such as the Hotel de Paris where the crêpe Suzette was invented or the Raffles Hotel in Singapore, where the Singapore Sling cocktail was devised.

A number of hotels have entered the public consciousness through popular culture, such as the Ritz Hotel in London, United Kingdom, through its association with Irving Berlin’s song, ‘Puttin’ on the Ritz‘. The Algonquin Hotel in New York City is famed as the meeting place of the literary group, the Algonquin Round Table, and Hotel Chelsea, also in New York City, has been the subject of a number of songs and the scene of the stabbing of Nancy Spungen (allegedly by her boyfriend Sid Vicious). The Waldorf Astoria and Statler hotels in New York City are also immortalized in the names of Muppets Statler and Waldorf.

The luxurious Grand Hotel Europe in Saint Petersburg, Russia achieved fame with its inclusion in the James Bond film GoldenEye.

Unusual hotels

U.S. City Chicago’s Magnificent Mile has hosted many skyscraper hotels such as the Allerton Hotel.

Many hotels can be considered destinations in themselves, by dint of unusual features of the lodging or its immediate environment:

Treehouse hotels

Some hotels are built with living trees as structural elements, for example the Costa Rica Tree House in the Gandoca-Manzanillo Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica; the Treetops Hotel in Aberdare National Park, Kenya; the Ariau Towers near Manaus, Brazil, on the Rio Negro in the Amazon; and Bayram’s Tree Houses in Olympos, Turkey.

Cave hotels

Desert Cave Hotel in Coober Pedy, South Australia and the Cuevas Pedro Antonio de Alarcón (named after the author) in Guadix, Spain, as well as several hotels in Cappadocia, Turkey, are notable for being built into natural cave formations, some with rooms underground.

Capsule hotels

Capsule hotels are a type of economical hotel that are found in Japan, where people sleep in stacks of rectangular containers.

Ice and snow hotels

Main article: Ice hotel

The Ice Hotel in Jukkasjärvi, Sweden, and the Hotel de Glace in Duschenay,­ Canada, melt every spring and are rebuilt each winter; the Mammut Snow Hotel in Finland is located within the walls of the Kemi snow castle; and the Lainio Snow Hotel is part of a snow village near Ylläs, Finland.

Garden hotels

Garden hotels, famous for their gardens before they became hotels, include Gravetye Manor, the home of garden designer William Robinson, and Cliveden, designed by Charles Barry with a rose garden by Geoffrey Jellicoe.

Underwater hotels

Some hotels have accommodation underwater, such as Utter Inn in Lake Mälaren, Sweden. Hydropolis, project cancelled 2004 in Dubai, will have suites on the bottom of the Persian Gulf, and Jules Undersea Lodge in Key Largo, Florida requires scuba diving to access its rooms.

Other unusual hotels

Resort hotels

The Luxor Hotel in Las Vegas, United States, a resort hotel serving an attached casino.

Some hotels are built specifically to create a captive trade, example at casinos and holiday resorts. Though of course hotels have always been built in popular desinations, the defining characteristic of a resort hotel is that it exists purely to serve another attraction, the two having the same owners.

In Las Vegas, Nevada there is a tradition of one-upmanship with extravagant themed hotels in a concentrated area known as the Las Vegas Strip. This trend now has extended to other resorts worldwide, but the concentration in Las Vegas is still the world’s highest: nineteen of the world’s twenty-five largest hotels by room count are on the Strip, with a total of over 67,000 rooms.[1]

In Europe Center Parcs might be considered a chain of resort hotels, since the sites are largely man-made (though set in natural surroundings such as country parks) with captive trade, whereas holiday camps such as Butlins and Pontin’s are probably not considered as resort hotels, since they are set at traditional holiday destinations which existed before the camps.

Railway hotels

Frequently, expanding railway companies built grand hotels at their termini, such as the Midland Hotel, Manchester next to the former Manchester Central Station and in London the ones above St Pancras railway station and Charing Cross railway station also in London is the the Chiltern Court Hotel above Baker Street tube station and Canada’s grand railway hotels. They are or were mostly, but not exclusively, used by those travelling by rail.

Ankor Wat Cambodia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Angkor Wat (or Angkor Vat) (Khmer: អង្គរវត្ត), is a temple complex at Angkor, Cambodia, built for the king Suryavarman II in the early 12th century as his state temple and capital city. As the best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious centre since its foundation—first Hindu, dedicated to Vishnu, then Buddhist. The temple is the epitome of the high classical style of Khmer architecture. It has become a symbol of Cambodia, appearing on its national flag, and it is the country’s prime attraction for visitors.

Angkor Wat combines two basic plans of Khmer temple architecture: the temple mountain and the later galleried temple, based on early South Indian Hindu architecture, with key features such as the Jagati. It is designed to represent Mount Meru, home of the devas in Hindu mythology: within a moat and an outer wall 3.6 kilometres (2.2 mi) long are three rectangular galleries, each raised above the next. At the centre of the temple stands a quincunx of towers. Unlike most Angkorian temples, Angkor Wat is oriented to the west; scholars are divided as to the significance of this. The temple is admired for the grandeur and harmony of the architecture, its extensive bas-reliefs and for the numerous devatas (guardian spirits) adorning its walls.

The modern name, Angkor Wat, means “City Temple”: Angkor is a vernacular form of the word nokor which comes from the Sanskrit word nagara meaning capital. wat is the Khmer word for temple. Prior to this time the temple was known as Preah Pisnulok, after the posthumous title of its founder, Suryavarman II.[1]

History

Angkor Wat is the southernmost temple of Angkor’s main group of sites.

An 1866 photograph of Angkor Wat by Emile Gsell

Angkor Wat lies 5.5 km north of the modern town of Siem Reap, and a short distance south and slightly east of the previous capital, which was centred on the Baphuon. It is in an area of Cambodia where there is an important group of ancient structures. It is the southernmost of Angkor’s main sites.

The initial design and construction of the temple took place in the first half of the 12th century, during the reign of Suryavarman II (ruled 1113 – c. 1150), Dedicated to Vishnu, it was built as the king’s state temple and capital city. As neither the foundation stela nor any contemporary inscriptions referring to the temple have been found, its original name is unknown, but it may have been known as Vrah Vishnulok after the presiding deity. Work seems to have ended shortly after the king’s death, leaving some of the bas-relief decoration unfinished. In 1177, approximately 27 years after the death of Sulyavarman II, Angkor was sacked by the Chams, the traditional enemies of the Khmer. Thereafter the empire was restored by a new king, Jayavarman VII, who established a new capital and state temple (Angkor Thom and the Bayon respectively) a few kilometres to the north.

In the late 13th century, King Jayavarman VIII, who was Hindu, was deposed by his son in law, Srindravarman. Srindravarman had spent the previous 10 years in Sri Lanka becoming ordained as a Buddhist monk. Hence, the new King decided to convert the official religion of the empire from Hindu to Buddhist. Given the constant political corruption of the time, citizens were quick to follow a faith founded on tranquility without a need for material gain and power. This made the conversion relatively easy. Hence, Angkor Wat was converted from Hindu to Theravada Buddhist use, which continues to the present day. Angkor Wat is unusual among the Angkor temples in that although it was somewhat neglected after the 16th century it was never completely abandoned, its preservation being due in part to the fact that its moat also provided some protection from encroachment by the jungle.

One of the first Western visitors to the temple was Antonio da Magdalena, a Portuguese monk who visited in 1586 and said that it “is of such extraordinary construction that it is not possible to describe it with a pen, particularly since it is like no other building in the world. It has towers and decoration and all the refinements which the human genius can conceive of”.However, the temple was popularised in the West only in the mid-19th century on the publication of Henri Mouhot‘s travel notes. The French explorer wrote of it:

“One of these temples—a rival to that of Solomon, and erected by some ancient Michelangelo—might take an honourable place beside our most beautiful buildings. It is grander than anything left to us by Greece or Rome, and presents a sad contrast to the state of barbarism in which the nation is now plunged.”

Mouhot, like other early Western visitors, was unable to believe that the Khmers could have built the temple, and mistakenly dated it to around the same era as Rome. The true history of Angkor Wat was pieced together only from stylistic and epigraphic evidence accumulated during the subsequent clearing and restoration work carried out across the whole Angkor site.

There were no ordinary dwellings or houses or other signs of settlement including cooking utensils weapons or items of clothing usually found at ancient sites. Instead there is the evidence of the monuments themselves.

Angkor Wat required considerable restoration in the 20th century, mainly the removal of accumulated earth and vegetation. Work was interrupted by the civil war and Khmer Rouge control of the country during the 1970s and 1980s, but relatively little damage was done during this period other than the theft and destruction of mostly post-Angkorian statues.

The temple has become a symbol of Cambodia, and is a source of great national pride. A depiction of Angkor Wat has been a part of Cambodian national flags since the introduction of the first version circa 1863. In January 2003 riots erupted in Phnom Penh when a false rumour circulated that a Thai soap opera actress had claimed that Angkor Wat belonged to Thailand.

Architecture

Site and plan

A plan of Angkor Wat

Angkor Wat, located at 13°24′45″N 103°52′0″E / 13.4125°N 103.86667°E / 13.4125; 103.86667Coordinates: 13°24′45″N 103°52′0″E / 13.4125°N 103.86667°E / 13.4125; 103.86667, is a unique combination of the temple mountain, the standard design for the empire’s state temples, the later plan of concentric galleries, and influences from Orissa and the Chola of Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is a representation of Mount Meru, the home of the gods: the central quincunx of towers symbolises the five peaks of the mountain, and the walls and moat the surrounding mountain ranges and ocean. Access to the upper areas of the temple was progressively more exclusive, with the laity being admitted only to the lowest level.

Unlike most Khmer temples, Angkor Wat is oriented to the west rather than the east. This has led many (including Glaize and George Coedès) to conclude that Suryavarman intended it to serve as his funerary temple. Further evidence for this view is provided by the bas-reliefs, which proceed in a counter-clockwise direction—prasavya in Hindu terminology—as this is the reverse of the normal order. Rituals take place in reverse order during Brahminic funeral services. The archaeologist Charles Higham also describes a container which may have been a funerary jar which was recovered from the central tower. It has been nominated by some as the greatest expenditure of energy on the disposal of a corpse. Freeman and Jacques, however, note that several other temples of Angkor depart from the typical eastern orientation, and suggest that Angkor Wat’s alignment was due to its dedication to Vishnu, who was associated with the west.

A further interpretation of Angkor Wat has been proposed by Eleanor Mannikka. Drawing on the temple’s alignment and dimensions, and on the content and arrangement of the bas-reliefs, she argues that these indicate a claimed new era of peace under king Suryavarman II: “as the measurements of solar and lunar time cycles were built into the sacred space of Angkor Wat, this divine mandate to rule was anchored to consecrated chambers and corridors meant to perpetuate the king’s power and to honor and placate the deities manifest in the heavens above.” Mannikka’s suggestions have been received with a mixture of interest and scepticism in academic circles. She distances herself from the speculations of others, such as Graham Hancock, that Angkor Wat is part of a representation of the constellation Draco.

The north-west tower of the inner gallery at sunset

Style

Angkor Wat is the prime example of the classical style of Khmer architecture—the Angkor Wat style—to which it has given its name. By the 12th century Khmer architects had become skilled and confident in the use of sandstone (rather than brick or laterite) as the main building material. Most of the visible areas are of sandstone blocks, while laterite was used for the outer wall and for hidden structural parts. The binding agent used to join the blocks is yet to be identified, although natural resins or slaked lime have been suggested.

Angkor Wat has drawn praise above all for the harmony of its design, which has been compared to the architecture of ancient Greece or Rome. According to Maurice Glaize, a mid-20th-century conservator of Angkor, the temple “attains a classic perfection by the restrained monumentality of its finely balanced elements and the precise arrangement of its proportions. It is a work of power, unity and style.”

Architecturally, the elements characteristic of the style include: the ogival, redented towers shaped like lotus buds; half-galleries to broaden passageways; axial galleries connecting enclosures; and the cruciform terraces which appear along the main axis of the temple. Typical decorative elements are devatas (or apsaras), bas-reliefs, and on pediments extensive garlands and narrative scenes. The statuary of Angkor Wat is considered conservative, being more static and less graceful than earlier work. Other elements of the design have been destroyed by looting and the passage of time, including gilded stucco on the towers, gilding on some figures on the bas-reliefs, and wooden ceiling panels and doors.

The Angkor Wat style was followed by that of the Bayon period, in which quality was often sacrificed to quantity. Other temples in the style are Banteay Samré, Thommanon, Chao Say Tevoda and the early temples of Preah Pithu at Angkor; outside Angkor, Beng Mealea and parts of Phanom Rung and Phimai.

Features

Aerial view of Angkor Wat

Outer enclosure

The outer wall, 1024 by 802 m and 4.5 m high, is surrounded by a 30 m apron of open ground and a moat 190 m wide. Access to the temple is by an earth bank to the east and a sandstone causeway to the west; the latter, the main entrance, is a later addition, possibly replacing a wooden bridge. There are gopuras at each of the cardinal points; the western is much the largest and has three ruined towers. Glaize notes that this gopura both hides and echoes the form of the temple proper. Under the southern tower is a statue of Vishnu, known as Ta Reach, which may originally have occupied the temple’s central shrine. Galleries run between the towers and as far as two further entrances on either side of the gopura often referred to as “elephant gates”, as they are large enough to admit those animals. These galleries have square pillars on the outer (west) side and a closed wall on the inner (east) side. The ceiling between the pillars is decorated with lotus rosettes; the west face of the wall with dancing figures; and the east face of the wall with balustered windows, dancing male figures on prancing animals, and devatas, including (south of the entrance) the only one in the temple to be showing her teeth.

The Temple viewed from the northwest

The outer wall encloses a space of 820,000 square metres (203 acres), which besides the temple proper was originally occupied by the city and, to the north of the temple, the royal palace. Like all secular buildings of Angkor, these were built of perishable materials rather than of stone, so nothing remains of them except the outlines of some of the streets. Most of the area is now covered by forest. A 350 m causeway connects the western gopura to the temple proper, with naga balustrades and six sets of steps leading down to the city on either side. Each side also features a library with entrances at each cardinal point, in front of the third set of stairs from the entrance, and a pond between the library and the temple itself. The ponds are later additions to the design, as is the cruciform terrace guarded by lions connecting the causeway to the central structure.

Central structure

This model of Angkor Wat shows intact the half-galleries of the lower level and towers at the corners of the second-level galleries.

The temple stands on a terrace raised higher than the city. It is made of three rectangular galleries rising to a central tower, each level higher than the last. Mannikka interprets these galleries as being dedicated to the king, Brahma, the moon, and Vishnu. Each gallery has a gopura at each of the points, and the two inner galleries each have towers at their corners, forming a quincunx with the central tower. Because the temple faces west, the features are all set back towards the east, leaving more space to be filled in each enclosure and gallery on the west side; for the same reason the west-facing steps are shallower than those on the other sides.

The outer gallery measures 187 by 215 m, with pavilions rather than towers at the corners. The gallery is open to the outside of the temple, with columned half-galleries extending and buttressing the structure. Connecting the outer gallery to the second enclosure on the west side is a cruciform cloister called Preah Poan (the “Hall of a Thousand Buddhas”). Buddha images were left in the cloister by pilgrims over the centuries, although most have now been removed. This area has many inscriptions relating the good deeds of pilgrims, most written in Khmer but others in Burmese and Japanese. The four small courtyards marked out by the cloister may originally have been filled with water. North and south of the cloister are libraries.

Beyond, the second and inner galleries are connected to each other and to two flanking libraries by another cruciform terrace, again a later addition. From the second level upwards, devatas abound on the walls, singly or in groups of up to four. The second-level enclosure is 100 by 115 m, and may originally have been flooded to represent the ocean around Mount Meru. Three sets of steps on each side lead up to the corner towers and gopuras of the inner gallery. The very steep stairways represent the difficulty of ascending to the kingdom of the gods. This inner gallery, called the Bakan, is a 60 m square with axial galleries connecting each gopura with the central shrine, and subsidiary shrines located below the corner towers. The roofings of the galleries are decorated with the motif of the body of a snake ending in the heads of lions or garudas. Carved lintels and pediments decorate the entrances to the galleries and to the shrines. The tower above the central shrine rises 43 m to a height of 65 m above the ground; unlike those of previous temple mountains, the central tower is raised above the surrounding four. The shrine itself, originally occupied by a statue of Vishnu and open on each side, was walled in when the temple was converted to Theravada Buddhism, the new walls featuring standing Buddhas. In 1934, the conservator George Trouvé excavated the pit beneath the central shrine: filled with sand and water it had already been robbed of its treasure, but he did find a sacred foundation deposit of gold leaf two metres above ground level.

Decoration

The bas-relief of the Churning of the Sea of Milk shows Vishnu in the centre, his turtle avatar Kurma below, asuras and devas to left and right, and apsaras and Indra above.

Integrated with the architecture of the building, and one of the causes for its fame is Angkor Wat’s extensive decoration, which predominantly takes the form of bas-relief friezes. The inner walls of the outer gallery bear a series of large-scale scenes mainly depicting episodes from the Hindu epics the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Higham has called these, “the greatest known linear arrangement of stone carving”. From the north-west corner anti-clockwise, the western gallery shows the Battle of Lanka (from the Ramayana, in which Rama defeats Ravana) and the Battle of Kurukshetra (from the Mahabharata, showing the mutual annihilation of the Kaurava and Pandava clans). On the southern gallery follow the only historical scene, a procession of Suryavarman II, then the 32 hells and 37 heavens of Hindu mythology.

Devatas are characteristic of the Angkor Wat style.

Glaize writes of;

“… those unfortunate souls who are to be thrown down to hell to suffer a refined cruelty which, at times, seems to be a little disproportionate to the severity of the crimes committed. So it is that people who have damaged others’ property have their bones broken, that the glutton is cleaved in two, that rice thieves are afflicted with enormous bellies of hot iron, that those who picked the flowers in the garden of Shiva have their heads pierced with nails, and thieves are exposed to cold discomfort.”

On the eastern gallery is one of the most celebrated scenes, the Churning of the Sea of Milk, showing 92 asuras and 88 devas using the serpent Vasuki to churn the sea under Vishnu’s direction (Mannikka counts only 91 asuras, and explains the asymmetrical numbers as representing the number of days from the winter solstice to the spring equinox, and from the equinox to the summer solstice). It is followed by Vishnu defeating asuras (a 16th-century addition). The northern gallery shows Krishna’s victory over Bana (where according to Glaize, “The workmanship is at its worst”) and a battle between the Hindu gods and asuras. The north-west and south-west corner pavilions both feature much smaller-scale scenes, some unidentified but most from the Ramayana or the life of Krishna.

Construction techniques

The stones, as smooth as polished marble, were laid without mortar with very tight joints that were sometimes hard to find. The blocks were held together by mortise and tenon joints in some cases, while in others they used dovetails and gravity. The blocks were presumably put in place by a combination of elephants, coir ropes, pulleys and bamboo scaffolding. Henri Mouhot noted that most of the blocks had holes 2.5 cm in diameter and 3 cm deep, with more holes on the larger blocks. Some scholars have suggested that these were used to join them together with iron rods, but others claim they were used to hold temporary pegs to help manoeuver them into place. The Khmer architects never made the curved arches used by the Romans. They did create a corbelled arch, but this often proved unstable and collapsed.

The monument was made out of enormous amounts of sandstone, as much as Khafre’s pyramid in Egypt (over 5 million tons). This sandstone had to be transported from Mount Kulen, a quarry approximately 25 miles (40 km) to the northeast. The stone was presumably transported by raft along the Siem Reap river. This would have to have been done with care to avoid overturning the rafts with such a large amount of weight. One modern engineer estimated it would take 300 years to complete Angkor Wat today. Yet the monument was begun soon after Suryavarman came to the throne and was finished shortly after his death, no more than 40 years.

Virtually all of its surfaces, columns, lintels even roofs are carved. There are miles of reliefs illustrating scenes from Indian literature including unicorns, griffins, winged dragons pulling chariots as well as warriors following an elephant mounted leader and celestial dancing girls with elaborate hair styles. The gallery wall alone is decorated with almost 1,000 square meters of bas reliefs. Holes on some of the Angkor walls indicate that they may have been decorated with bronze sheets. These were highly prized in ancient times and were a prime target for robbers. While excavating Khajuraho, Alex Evans, a stone mason and sculptor, recreated a stone sculpture under 4 feet (1.2 m), this took about 60 days to carve. Roger Hopkins and Mark Lehner also conducted experiments to quarry limestone which took 12 quarrymen 22 days to quarry about 400 tons of stone. The labour force to quarry, transport, carve and install this much sandstone must have run into the thousands including many highly skilled artisans. The skill required to carve these sculptures was developed hundreds of years earlier, as demonstrated by some artifacts found that were dated to the seventh century before the Khmer came into power.

Angkor Wat today

This model of Angkor Wat is designed to give tourists an overview of the site. In the foreground is depicted the cruciform terrace which lies in front of the central structure.

The Archaeological Survey of India carried out restoration work on the temple between 1986 and 1992. Since the 1990s, Angkor Wat has seen continued conservation efforts and a massive increase in tourism. The temple is part of the Angkor World Heritage Site, established in 1992, which has provided some funding and has encouraged the Cambodian government to protect the site.The German Apsara Conservation Project (GACP) is working to protect the devatas and other bas-reliefs which decorate the temple from damage. The organisation’s survey found that around 20% of the devatas were in very poor condition, mainly because of natural erosion and deterioration of the stone but in part also due to earlier restoration efforts. Other work involves the repair of collapsed sections of the structure, and prevention of further collapse: the west facade of the upper level, for example, has been buttressed by scaffolding since 2002, while a Japanese team completed restoration of the north library of the outer enclosure in 2005. World Monuments Fund began work on the Churning of the Sea of Milk Gallery in 2008.

Angkor Wat has become a major tourist destination. In 2004 and 2005, government figures suggest that, respectively, 561,000 and 677,000 foreign visitors arrived in Siem Reap province, approximately 50% of all foreign tourists in Cambodia for both years. The influx of tourists has so far caused relatively little damage, other than some graffiti; ropes and wooden steps have been introduced to protect the bas-reliefs and floors, respectively. Tourism has also provided some additional funds for maintenance—as of 2000 approximately 28% of ticket revenues across the whole Angkor site was spent on the temples—although most work is carried out by foreign government-sponsored teams rather than by the Cambodian authorities.

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អ្នកទិញ ៖ ខ្ញុំ​ចង់​ទិញ​អាវ​រងា​ឲ្យ​ឆ្កែ​របស់​ខ្ញុំ អ្នកលក់ ៖ តើ​វា​ពាក់​លេខ​ប៉ុន្មាន​ដែរ​អ្នកនាង? អ្នកទិញ ៖ ខ្ញុំភ្លេច​បាត់​ទៅហើយ អ្នកលក់ ៖ ហេតុអ្វី​បាន​ជា​មិន​នាំ​វា​មក​តែ​ម្ដង​ទៅ? អ្នកទិញ ៖ មិន​បានទេ! ថ្ងៃ​នេះ​ជា​ថ្ងៃ​កំណើត​របស់​វា ខ្ញុំ​ចង់​ឲ្យ​វា​មាន​ការ​ភ្ញាក់​ផ្អើល អ្នក​លក់ ៖ !!!
ទុកអោយអញ
ថ្ងៃទី១ ប្អូន ៖ បងៗ​ទូរទស្សន៍​យើង​ខូច​ហើយ! បង ៖ ចុះ​ឯង​មិន​យក​ទៅ​ធ្វើ! ថ្ងៃទី២ ប្អូន ៖ បងៗកុំព្យូទ័រ​យើង​ខូចទៀត​​ហើយ! បង ៖ ចុះ​ឯង​មិន​យក​ទៅ​ឲ្យ​គេ​ធ្វើ! អញ្ចឹង​ក៏​ប្រាប់​អញ​ដែរ! ថ្ងៃទី៣ បង ៖ ឈប់! ថ្ងៃនេះ​ខូច​អី​ទៀត​ហើយ? ប្អូន ៖ ស្រី​ខូច​បង! បង ៖ អើ​អាហ្នឹង​ទុក​ឲ្យ​អញ​យក​ទៅ​ធ្វើ!
ទិញទូស័ព្ទ
ពូម៉ៅ ​គាត់​ចង់​ទិញ​ទូរស័ព្ទ រួច​គាត់​ក៏​បាន​ទៅ​ដល់​ហាង​មួយ ។ អ្នក​លក់ ៖ តើ​ពូ​ចង់​ទិញ​ទូរស័ព្ទ​ម៉ាក​អី​ដែរ? ពូ​ម៉ៅ ៖ ​មាន​អា​ម៉ាក​ណា​ប្រើ​បាន​យូរ ហើយ​មិន​ងាយ​ខូច​ទេ? អ្នកលក់ ៖ ច៎ាស​មាន ដូចជា Nokia, Samsung, LG… ពូម៉ៅ ៖ ខ្លាចតែ​វា​ថ្លៃ​ពេក​ទេ​ដឹង? អ្នក​លក់ ៖ Nokia នេះ ១៨០$ Sumsung នេះ​ ១៥០$ ពូ​ម៉ៅ ៖ ទេ ខ្ញុំ​ចង់​បាន​​អា​ណា​ដែល​​ប្រើ​ទុក​គប់​ចោរ​អត់ស្ដាយ ព្រោះ​ឥឡូវ​ចោរ​ឆក់​ទូរស័ព្ទ​ច្រើន​ណាស់! អ្នក​លក់ ៖ អើ! មើល​គាត់!!!???
ម៉េចប៉ាមិនខំរៀន
ក្មេង ​ប្រុស​ម្នាក់​បាន​សួរ​ទៅ​កាន់​ប៉ាប៉ា​របស់​គេ​ថា ៖ “ប៉ា​ហ៎ា…បើ​មាន​គេ​ជ្រុះ​លុយ​ ៥០០៛ មួយ​សន្លឹក និង ១០០០៛ មួយ​សន្លឹក តើ​ប៉ា​រើស​យក​មួយ​ណា?” ប៉ា​ប្រាកដ​​ជា​រើស​យក​ក្រដាស​ ១០០០​៛ ហើយ ។ “ចុះ​ហេតុអ្វី…ប៉ា​មិន​រើស​យក​ទាំង​២​សន្លឹក​ទៅ” កូន​តប ។ “ប៉ា! កូន​សួរ​ប៉ា​មួយ​ទៀត… ថ្ងៃ​មុន​គេ​មក​ទារ​លុយ​ប៉ា​ជំពាក់​គេ ប៉ា​ថា​មិន​មាន​លុយ​ទេ​ចាំ​លើក​ក្រោយ​ទៅ បើសិន​ជា​គេ​មក​ទា​ប៉ា​ម្ដង​ទៀត តើ​ប៉ា​ឆ្លើយ​ថា​យ៉ាង​ម៉េច?” “​ប៉ា​ឆ្លើយ​ថា​មិនមាន​លុយ​ដដែល​ហ្នឹង…!” “ហេតុអ្វី​ទៅ​ប៉ា?” “ព្រោះ​ប៉ា​ជាមនុស្ស​និយាយ​ថា​ម៉េច គឺ​ថា​អញ្ចឹង​ណា​កូនប្រុស…” ។ “អញ្ចឹង​កូន​សួរ​ប៉ា​ជា​លើក​ចុង​ក្រោយ! ហេតុ​អ្វី​ផ្ទះ​គេ​រាល់​គ្នា​សុទ្ធ​តែ​ធំ បែ​ជា​​ផ្ទះ​របស់​យើង​វិញ​​តូច​អញ្ចឹង​ប៉ា…!” “នោះ​គឺ​ដោយ​សារ​ប៉ា​គ្មាន​លុយ​​សង់​ឲ្យ​ធំ​ដូច​គេ​ហ្នឹងណា…!” ឪពុក​តប “ដើម្បី​ឲ្យ​ផ្ទះ​របស់​យើង​ធំ តើ​យើង​ត្រូវ​ធ្វើ​ដូចម្ដេច?” កូនសួរ ។ “ដើម្បីបាន​​ផ្ទះ​ធំ​កូន​ត្រូវ​ខិតខំ​រៀន​សូត្រ​ឲ្យ​ចប់ចុង​ចប់ដើម ហើយ​រក​ការងារ​ឲ្យ​បាន​ប្រាក់ខែ​ច្រើន នោះ​យើង​អាច​មាន​ផ្ទះ​ធំ​បាន​ហើយ​កូន…!” ឪពុក​ឆ្លើយ “ចុះ​កាល​ពី​ប៉ា​នៅ​ក្មេង ម្ដេច​ប៉ា​មិន​ខំរៀន​ដែរ​ទៅ?” កូន​សួរ “យើស! អាកូន​នេះ…!!!”
រកការងារធ្វើ
ផ្លយ ៖ សួស្ដី ផ្លូញ មួយ​រយៈ​នេះ​ដូច​ជា​មិន​សូវ​បាន​​ជួប​មុខ​ឯង? ផ្លូញ ៖ តាំង​ពី​ទទួល​សញ្ញាប័ត្រ​មក​រត់​រក​ការងារ​ធ្វើ​មិន​បាន​សោះ​សំឡាញ់ ផ្លយ ៖ ក្រែង​ល៏ ឯង​រើស​រក​តែ​ការងារ​ល្អៗ បាន​ប្រាក់​ច្រើន​ទេ​ដឹង? ផ្លូញ ៖ មិន​រើស​ណាស់ណា​ទេ ស្អី​ក៏​បាន ឲ្យ​តែ​ចំ​កន្លែង​ខ្លាញ់​ ល្មម​រស់​នៅ​សមរម្យ​ដូច​គេ​ដូច​ឯង​ទៅ​ជា​ការ​គ្រប់គ្រាន់​ណាស់​ហើយ… ផ្លយ ៖ ចំ​កណ្ដាល​កៅឪ​ហើយ បង​ជីដូន​មួយ​គ្នា​ទើប​និង​បើក​ហាង​គុយ​ទាវ​ពិសេស គេ​ត្រូវ​ការ​អ្នក​លាង​ចាន ២-៣នាក់ ចំ​គ្នា​ជួយ​និយាយ​ឲ្យ…! ផ្លូញ ៖ ពុទ្ធោ! ទីនោះ​ឬ កន្លែង​ខ្លាញ់…? ផ្លយ ៖ !!!???
គ្មានវាចានឹងថ្លែង
លោកគ្រូ ​ចំណូល​គាត់​ចូល​ចិត្ត​កីឡា​ណាស់ ថ្ងៃ​នេះ​នៅ​ក្នុង​ថ្នាក់​រៀន គាត់​បាន​ឲ្យ​សិស្ស​សរសេរ​ពី​ចំណាប់អារម្មណ៍​ស្ដី​អំពី​កីឡា​បាល់ទាត់​មួយ​ ក្រុម ។ លោកគ្រូ ៖ តើ​ប្អូនៗ​ធ្លាប់​មើល​ការ​ប្រកួត​បាល់ទាត់​ទេ? សិស្ស ក ៖ បាទ! លោកគ្រូ ធ្លាប់! លោកគ្រូ ៖ បើ​ដូច្នេះ​សូម​ប្អូនៗរៀប​រាប់​អំពី​លទ្ធផល​នៃការ​ប្រកួតរបស់​ក្រុម​​នីមួយៗ ដែល​ប្អូន​ធ្លាប់​ទៅ​ទស្សនា! សិស្ស​ម្នាក់ៗ​រៀបរាប់​ល្អ​ឥត​ខ្ចោះ នៅ​សល់​តែ​ប្លោក​វា​ក្រោក​ឈរ​ អេះ​ក្បាល ។ លោកគ្រូ ៖ ម៉េច​ក៏​ប្អូន​មិន​រៀបរាប់…? ប្លោក ៖ រៀប​រាប់​អត់​ចេញទេ​លោកគ្រូ… លោកគ្រូ ៖ ម៉េច​អញ្ចឹង? ប្លោក ៖ ព្រោះ​ពេល​កំពុង​ប្រកួត ខ្ញុំ​កើត​ខ្យល់គ អត់​បាន​តាម​ដាន! លោកគ្រូ ៖ ???
ថ្លៃវះកាត់

ចេញផ្សាយ ឆ្នាំ​ទី៥ ថ្ងៃទី ០១ ខែ មិនា ឆ្នាំ ២០០៩

អ្នកជំងឺ​ដែល​ត្រៀម​វះកាត់​ម្នាក់​កំពុងតែ​ឈរ​តវ៉ា នឹង​លោកគ្រូ​ពេទ្យ

ពី​ថ្លៃ​វះកាត់​ដែល​ត្រូវ​បង់​នៅមុន​ពេល​ចូល​បន្ទប់វះកាត់​នៅ ពេល​បន្ដិច

ទៀត​នេះ

អ្នកជំងឺ គ្រាន់តែ​ការវះកាត់​ដ៏​តូចតាច​ប៉ុណ្ណឹង យក​ដល់​ទៅ

៥០០ដុល្លារ វា​ដូចជា​ថ្លៃ​ជ្រុល​ពេក​ហើយ​លោកគ្រូ ពេទ្យ

គ្រូពេទ្យ បើ​លោក​គិតថា​ថ្លៃ ខ្ញុំ​ស្គាល់​កន្លែង​ថោក​មួយ គេ​ជា​មិ​ត្ដ​ខ្ញុំ

គេ​ក៏​អាច​វះកាត់​ឱ្យ​លោក​បាន​ហើយ ចំនុច​ល្អ​មួយទៀត

គឺ​កន្លែង​នោះ​ជាទូទៅ​គេ​មិន យក​ថ្លៃ​វះកាត់​ជាមុន​ដូចកន្លែង​ខ្ញុំ​ទេ

អ្នកជំងឺ ហេតុ​អី​ទៅ?

គ្រូពេទ្យ គេ​តែងតែ​ចាំ​ទូទាត់​ជាមួយ​គ្រួសារ​នៃ​សព​អ្នកជំងឺរបស់គេ

ចេញពី http://www.visit-cambodia.com

យល់ច្រឡំ

យប់​មួយ ចោរ​ម្នា​ក់បាន​លួច​ចូល​ផ្ទះ​មីង​មុំ តែ​ត្រូវបាន​គាត់ ឃើញ​ទាន់មីង​មុំ

​បាន​ហក់​ទៅ​វាយ​ចោរ​នោះ​ត្រូវរបួស​យ៉ាងដំណំ នៅ​ថ្ងៃ​បន្ទាប់ ប៉ូលីសដែល

​ចុះមក​ធ្វើ​កំណត់ហេតុ​បាន​សរសើរ ចំពោះ សេចក្ដី ក្លាហាន​របស់គាត់ដែល​

ហ៊ាន​វាយ​ចោរ​បែបនេះ ហើយ​ថែមទាំង​ប្រាប់​គាត់​ថា ចោរ​ម្នាក់​នោះ​ត្រូវ

ដេកពេទ្យ​យ៉ាង ហ៊ោ​ចណាស់​ក៏២-៣ អាទិត្យ​ដែល​ដោយសារ​គាត់

មីង​មុំ​ស្ដាប់​ហើយ​ដកដង្ហើម​ធំ​និយាយគួរឱ្យ​ស្ដាយ​ណាស់​ដែល

ខ្ញុំ​យល់ច្រឡំ…

ប៉ូលីស យល់​ច្រ​លំ​អី​ទៅ?”

មីង​មុំ ខ្ញុំ​ស្មានតែ​ប្ដី​ខ្ញុំ​ដែល​ទើប​ត្រលប់​មកពី​ផឹកស្រា​វិញ

ប៉ូលីស ?11

ចេញពី http://www.visit-cambodia.com

ឱ្យតែបានមើល

អ្នកដឹកនាំ​រឿង​ម្នាក់​និយាយ​ទៅកាន់​តារា​ស្រី​ដ៏​ស្រស់ស្អាត​របស់ខ្លួន​ថា

ខ្ញុំ​បាន​ស្គាល់​មនុស្ស​ម្នាក់​គេ​ថា​គេ​យល់ព្រម​ឱ្យ​លុយ​នាង​មួយ​លាន​ដុល្លា​ឱ្យតែ​គេ​បានឃើញ​មុខ

របស់​នាង​មួយ​ភ្លែត”

តារា​ស្រី​នោះ​លឺ​បែបនេះ​នាង​ឆ្លើយ​ទៅ​យ៉ាង​រំភើប​ថាមែនរឺ?

បើ​ពិតមែន​ខ្ញុំ​យល់ព្រម​សម្ដែង​ឱ្យគេ​មើល​ទៀតផង កុំថាឡើយ​ឱ្យមើល​តែ​មុខ”

ពិតមែន​ហើយ1 ប៉ុន្ដែ​គាត់​គឺជា​មនុស្ស​ងងឹតភ្នែក​ទាំ​ង​សងខាង ទេ”

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ដូចតែគ្នា

មេបញ្ជាការ​ប៉ូលីស​ប្រឆាំង​គ្រឿងញៀន​បានប្រកាស​ដំណឹង​ប្រាប់​ដល់​បណ្ដាល​កូន​ប៉ូលីស​

ទាំងអស់​មុន នឹង​សម្រុក​ចូលទៅកំទេច​ចំការ​អាភៀន​មួយកន្លែង​ថា

ខ្ញុំ​មាន​ដំណឹង​ល្អ និង ដំណឹង​អាក្រក់​មក​ប្រាប់​ពួកយើង​ទាំង អស់​គ្នា”

គាត់​បែរ​ទៅ​ឡាំង​ដាក់​សំភារៈ​ដែល​ថ្នាក់លើ​ទើបតែ​បញ្ជូន​មកឱ្យ

រួច​និយាយ​បន្ដទៀតថា

ដំណឹង​ល្អ​នោះ​គឺ​ថ្នាក់លើ​បាន​បញ្ជូន​អាវ​ក្រោះ​ការពារ​គ្រាប់កាំភ្លើង​មកឱ្យ​ពួកយើង​គ្រប់គ្នា”

ជយោ1ប៉ូលីស​ទាំងអស់​ស្រែក​ហ៊ោរ​ដោយ​ក្ដី​រីករាយ

ហើយ​ចុះ​ដំណឹង​អាក្រក់​វិញ​លោកនាយ?” កូនចៅ​សួរ

ដំណឹង​អាក្រក់​គឺ​ពួកចោរ​ប្រើ​គ្រាប់កាំភ្លើង​ពិសេស​ដែល​អាច​បាញ់​ទំ​លុះ​អាវ​ក្រោះ​នេះ​បាន…”

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