Unit 85 Instructions and requests

Read Time:2 Minute, 26 Second

Main points

* You use `Could you’ to tell someone politely to do something.

* Imperatives are not very polite.

* You also use `Could you’ to ask someone politely for help.

* You use `I would like’, `Would you mind’, `Do you think you could’, and `I wonder if you could’ to make requests.

1 When you want to tell someone to do something, you can use `Could you’, `Will you’, and `Would you’. `Could you’ is very polite.
Could you make out her bill, please?
Could you just switch on the light behind you?

`Will you’ and `Would you’ are normally used by people in authority. `Would you’ is more polite than `Will you’.
Would you tell her that Adrian phoned?
Will you please leave the room?

Note that although these sentences look like questions (`Will you’, not `You will’), they are not really questions.

2 If someone in authority wants to tell someone to do something, they sometimes say `I would like you to do this’ or `I’d like you to do this’.
Penelope, I would like you to get us the files.
I’d like you to finish this work by Thursday.

3 You can use an imperative to tell someone to do something, but this is not very polite.
Stop her.
Go away, all of you.

However, imperatives are commonly used when talking to people you know very well.
Come here, love.
Sit down and let me get you a drink.

You often use imperatives in situations of danger or urgency.
Look out! There’s a car coming.
Put it away before Mum sees you.

4 When you want to ask someone to help you, you use `Could you’, `Would you’, `Can you’, or `Will you’. `Could you’ and `Would you’ are used in formal situations, or when you want to be very polite, for example because you are asking for something that requires a lot of effort. `Could you’ is more polite than `Would you’.
Could you show me how to do this?
Would you do me a favour?

`Will you’ and `Can you’ are used in informal situations, especially when you are not asking for something that requires a lot of effort.
Will you post this for me on your way to work?
Can you make me a copy of that?

5 You also use `I would like’ or `I’d like’, followed by a `to’-infinitive or a noun group, to make a request.
I would like to ask you one question.
I’d like steak and chips, please.

6 You can also make a request by using:

* `Would you mind’, followed by an `-ing’ form
Would you mind doing the washing up?
Would you mind waiting a moment?

* `Do you think you could’, followed by the base form of a verb
Do you think you could help me?

* `I wonder if you could’, followed by the base form of a verb
I wonder if you could look after my cat for me while I’m away?

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Unit 86 Suggestions

Read Time:1 Minute, 52 Second

Main points

* You use `could’, `couldn’t’, or `shall’ to make a suggestion.

* You use `Shall we’ to suggest doing something with someone.

* You use `You might like’ or `You might want’ to make polite suggestions.

* You use `may as well’ or `might as well’ to suggest a sensible action.

* You use `What about’, `Let’s’, `Why don’t’, and `Why not’ to make suggestions.

1 You use `could’ to suggest doing something.
You could phone her.
She could go into research.
We could go on Friday.

You also use `couldn’t’ in a question to suggest doing something.
Couldn’t you just build some more factories?
Couldn’t we do it at the weekend?

2 You use `Shall we’ to suggest doing something with somebody else.
Shall we go and see a film?
Shall we talk about something different now?

You use `Shall I’ to suggest doing something yourself.
Shall I contact the Chairman?

3 You use `You might’, followed by a verb meaning `like’ or `want’, to make a suggestion in a very polite way.
I thought perhaps you might like to come along with me.
You might want to try another shop.

You can also do this using `It might be’, followed by a noun group or an adjective, and a `to’-infinitive.
I think it might be a good idea to stop recording now.
It might be wise to get a new car.

4 You use `may as well’ or `might as well’ to suggest doing something, but only because it seems the sensible thing to do, or because there is no reason not to do it.
You may as well open them all.
He might as well take the car.

5 You can also make a suggestion by using:

* `What about’ or `How about’ followed by an `-ing’ form
What about going to Judy’s?
How about using my car?

* `Let’s’ followed by the base form of a verb
Let’s go outside.

* `Why don’t I’, `Why don’t you’ or `Why don’t we’ followed by the base form of a verb
Why don’t I pick you up at seven?
Why don’t you write to her yourself?
Why don’t we just give them what they want?

* `Why not’ followed by the base form of a verb
Why not bring him along?
Why not try both?

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Unit 88 Wants and wishes

Read Time:2 Minute, 6 Second

Main points

* You use `would like’ to say what you want.

* You use `wouldn’t like’ to say what you do not want.

* You use `would rather’ or `would sooner’ to say what you prefer.

* You also use `wouldn’t mind’ to say what you want.

1 You can say what someone wants by using `would like’ followed by a `to’-infinitive or a noun group.
I would like to know the date of the next meeting.
John would like his book back.

When the subject is a pronoun, you often use the short form `-‘d’ instead of `would’.
I’d like more information about the work you do.
We’d like seats in the non-smoking section, please.

In spoken English, you can also use the short form `-‘d’ instead of `would’ when the subject is a noun.
Sally’d like to go to the circus.

2 You can say what someone does not want by using `would not like’ or `wouldn’t like’.
I would not like to see it.
They wouldn’t like that.

3 You use `would like’ followed by `to have’ and a past participle to say that someone wishes now that something had happened in the past, but that it did not happen.
I would like to have felt more relaxed.
She’d like to have heard me first.

You use `would have liked’, followed by a `to’-infinitive or a noun group, to say that someone wanted something to happen, but it did not happen.
Perhaps he would have liked to be a teacher.
I would have liked more ice cream.

Note the difference. `Would like to have’ refers to present wishes about past events. ‘Would have liked’ refers to past wishes about past events.

4 You can also use `would hate’, `would love’, or `would prefer’, followed by a `to’-infinitive or a noun group.
I would hate to move to another house now.
I would prefer a cup of coffee.

Note that `would enjoy’ is followed by a noun group or an `-ing’ form, not by a `to’-infinitive.
I would enjoy a bath before we go.
I would enjoy seeing him again.

5 You can use `would rather’ or `would sooner’ followed by the base form of a verb to say that someone prefers one situation to another.
He’d rather be playing golf.
I’d sooner walk than take the bus.

6 You use `I wouldn’t mind’, followed by an `-ing’ form or a noun group, to say that you would like to do or have something.
I wouldn’t mind being the manager of a store.
I wouldn’t mind a cup of tea.

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Unit 87 Offers and invitations

Read Time:1 Minute, 57 Second

Main points

* You use `Would you like’ to offer something to someone or to invite them to do something.

* You use `Can I’, `Could I’, and `Shall I’ when you offer to help someone.

1 When you are offering something to someone, or inviting them to do something, you use `Would you like’.
Would you like a drink?
Would you like to come for a meal?

You can use `Will you’ to offer something to someone you know quite well, or to give an invitation in a fairly informal way.
Will you have another biscuit, Dave?
Will you come to my party on Saturday?

2 You use `Can I’ or `Could I’ when you are offering to do something for someone. `Could I’ is more polite.
Can I help you with the dishes?
Could I help you carry those bags?

You also use `Shall I’ when you are offering to do something, especially if you are fairly sure that your offer will be accepted.
Shall I shut the door?
Shall I spell that for you?

3 You use `I can’ or `I could’ to make an offer when you want to say that you are able to help someone.
I have a car. I can take Daisy to the station.
I could pay some of the rent.

4 You also use `I’ll’ to offer to do something.
I’ll give them a ring if you like.
I’ll show you the hotel.

5 You use `You must’ if you want to invite someone very persuasively to do something.
You must come round for a meal some time.
You must come and visit me.

6 There are other ways of making offers and giving invitations without using modals. For example, you can use `Let me’ when offering to help someone.
Let me take you to your room.
Let me drive you to London.

You can make an offer or give an invitation in a more informal way by using an imperative sentence, when it is clear that you are not giving an order.
Have a cigar.
Come to my place.

You can add emphasis by putting `do’ in front of the verb.
Do have a chocolate biscuit.
Do help yourselves.

You can also give an invitation by using `Why don’t you’ or `How about’.
Why don’t you come to lunch tomorrow?
How about coming with us to the party?

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Unit 89 Obligation and necessity 1

Read Time:2 Minute, 56 Second

Main points

* You use `have to’, `must’, and `mustn’t’ to talk about obligation and necessity in the present and future.

* You use `had to’ to talk about obligation and necessity in the past.

* You use the auxiliary `do’ with `have to’ to make questions.

* You use `have got to’ in informal English.

1 When you want to say that someone has an obligation to do something, or that it is necessary for them to do it, you use `must’ or `have to’.
You must come to the meeting tomorrow.
The plants must have plenty of sunshine.
I enjoy parties, unless I have to make a speech.
He has to travel to find work.

2 There is sometimes a difference between `must’ and `have to’. When you are stating your own opinion that something is an obligation or a necessity, you normally use `must’.
I must be very careful not to upset him.
We must eat before we go.
He must stop working so hard.

When you are giving information about what someone else considers to be an obligation or a necessity, you normally use `have to’.
They have to pay the bill by Thursday.
She has to go now.

Note that you normally use `have to’ for things that happen repeatedly, especially with adverbs of frequency such as `often’, `always’, and `regularly’.
I always have to do the shopping.
You often have to wait a long time for a bus.

3 You use `must not’ or `mustn’t’ to say that it is important that something is not done or does not happen.
You must not talk about politics.
They mustn’t find out that I came here.

Note that `must not’ does not mean the same as `not have to’. If you `must not’ do something, it is important that you do not do it.

If you `do not have to’ do something, it is not necessary for you to do it, but you can do it if you want.

WARNING: You only use `must’ for obligation and necessity in the present and the future. When you want to talk about obligation and necessity in the past, you use `had to’ rather than `must’.

She had to catch the six o’clock train.
I had to wear a suit.

4 You use `do’, `does’, or `did’ when you want to make a question using `have to’ and `not have to’.
How often do you have to buy petrol for the car?
Does he have to take so long to get ready?
What did you have to do?
Don’t you have to be there at one o’clock?

WARNING: You do not normally form questions like these by putting a form of `have’ before the subject. For example, you do not normally say `How often have you to buy petrol?’

5 In informal English, you can use `have got to’ instead of `have to’.
You’ve just got to make sure you tell him.
She’s got to see the doctor.
Have you got to go so soon?

WARNING: You normally use `had to’, not `had got to’, for the past.

He had to know.
I had to lend him some money.

6 You can only use `have to’, not `must’, if you are using another modal, or if you want to use an `-ing’ form, a past participle, or a `to’-infinitive.
They may have to be paid by cheque.
She grumbled a lot about having to stay abroad.
I would have had to go through London.
He doesn’t like to have to do the same job every day.

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Unit 90 Obligation and necessity 2

Read Time:2 Minute, 14 Second

Main points

* You use `need to’ to talk about necessity.

* You use `don’t have to’, `don’t need to’, `haven’t got to’, or `needn’t’ to say that it is not necessary to do something.

* You use `needn’t’ to give someone permission not to do something.

* You use `need not have’, `needn’t have’, `didn’t need to’, or `didn’t have to’ to say that it was not necessary to do something in the past.

1 You can use `need to’ to talk about the necessity of doing something.
You might need to see a doctor.
A number of questions need to be asked.

2 You use `don’t have to’ when there is no obligation or necessity to do something.
Many women don’t have to work.
You don’t have to learn any new typing skills.

You can also use `don’t need to’, `haven’t got to’, or `needn’t’ to say that there is no obligation or necessity to do something.
You don’t need to buy anything.
I haven’t got to go to work today.
I can pick John up. You needn’t bother.

3 You also use `needn’t’ when you are giving someone permission not to do something.
You needn’t say anything if you don’t want to.
You needn’t stay any longer tonight.

4 You use `need not have’ or `needn’t have’ and a past participle to say that someone did something which was not necessary. You are often implying that the person did not know at the time that their action was not necessary.
I needn’t have waited until the game began.
Nell needn’t have worked.
They needn’t have worried about Reagan.

5 You use `didn’t need to’ to say that something was not necessary, and that it was known at the time that the action was not necessary. You do not know if the action was done, unless you are given more information.
They didn’t need to talk about it.
I didn’t need to worry.

6 You also use `didn’t have to’ to say that it was not necessary to do something.
He didn’t have to speak.
Bill and I didn’t have to pay.

7 You cannot use `must’ to refer to the past, so when you want to say that it was important that something did not happen or was not done, you use other expressions.

You can say `It was important not to’, or use phrases like `had to make sure’ or `had to make certain’ in a negative sentence.
It was important not to take the game too seriously.
It was necessary that no one was aware of being watched.
You had to make sure that you didn’t spend too much.
We had to do our best to make certain that it wasn’t out of date.

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Unit 91 Mild obligation and advice

Read Time:2 Minute, 53 Second

Main points

* You use `should’ and `ought’ to talk about mild obligation.

* You use `should have’ and `ought to have’ to say that there was a mild obligation to do something in the past, but it was not done.

* You can also use `had better’ to talk about mild obligation.

1 You can use `should’ and `ought’ to talk about a mild obligation to do something. When you use `should’ and `ought’, you are saying that the feeling of obligation is not as strong as when you use `must’.

`Should’ and `ought’ are very common in spoken English.

`Should’ is followed by the base form of a verb, but `ought’ is followed by a `to’-infinitive.

When you want to say that there is a mild obligation not to do something, you use `should not’, `shouldn’t, `ought not’, or `oughtn’t’.

2 You use `should’ and `ought’ in three main ways:

* when you are talking about what is a good thing to do, or the right thing to do.
We should send her a postcard.
We shouldn’t spend all the money.
He ought to come more often.
You ought not to see him again.

* when you are trying to advise someone about what to do or what not to do.
You should claim your pension 3-4 months before you retire.
You shouldn’t use a detergent.
You ought to get a new TV.
You oughtn’t to marry him.

* when you are giving or asking for an opinion about a situation. You often use `I think’, `I don’t think’, or `Do you think’ to start the sentence.
I think that we should be paid more.
I don’t think we ought to grumble.
Do you think he ought not to go?
What do you think we should do?

3 You use `should have’ or `ought to have’ and a past participle to say that there was a mild obligation to do something in the past, but that it was not done. For example, if you say `I should have given him the money yesterday’, you mean that you had a mild obligation to give him the money yesterday, but you did not give it to him.
I should have finished my drink and gone home.
You should have realised that he was joking.
We ought to have stayed in tonight.
They ought to have taken a taxi.

You use `should not have’ or `ought not to have’ and a past participle to say that it was important not to do something in the past, but that it was done. For example, if you say `I should not have left the door open’, you mean that it was important that you did not leave the door open, but you did leave it open.
I should not have said that.
You shouldn’t have given him the money.
They ought not to have told him.
She oughtn’t to have sold the ring.

4 You use `had better’ followed by a base form to indicate mild obligation to do something in a particular situation. You also use `had better’ when giving advice or when giving your opinion about something. The negative is `had better not’.
I think I had better show this to you now.
You’d better go tomorrow.
I’d better not look at this.

WARNING: The correct form is always `had better’ (not `have better’). You do not use `had better’ to talk about mild obligation in the past, even though it looks like a past form.

Next Unit

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Unit 92 Defining relative clauses

Read Time:3 Minute, 2 Second

Main points

* You use defining relative clauses to say exactly which person or thing you are talking about.

* Defining relative clauses are usually introduced by a relative pronoun such as `that’, `which’, `who’, `whom’, or `whose’.

* A defining relative clause comes immediately after noun, and needs a main clause to make a complete sentence.

1 You use defining relative clauses to give information that helps to identify the person or thing you are talking about.
The man who you met yesterday was my brother.
The car which crashed into me belonged to Paul.

When you are talking about people, you use `that’ or `who’ in the relative clause.
He was the man that bought my house.
You are the only person here who knows me.

When you are talking about things, you use `that’ or `which’ in the relative clause.
There was ice cream that Mum had made herself.
I will tell you the first thing which I can remember.

2 `That’, `who’, or `which’ can be:

* the subject of the verb in the relative clause
The thing that really surprised me was his attitude.
The woman who lives next door is very friendly.
The car which caused the accident drove off.

* the object of the verb in the relative clause
The thing that I really liked about it was its size.
The woman who you met yesterday lives next door.
The car which I wanted to buy was not for sale.

In formal English, `whom’ is used instead of `who’ as the object of the verb in the relative clause.
She was a woman whom I greatly respected.

3 You can leave out `that’, `who’, or `which’ when they are the object of the verb in the relative clause.
The woman you met yesterday lives next door.
The car I wanted to buy was not for sale.
The thing I really liked about it was its size.

WARNING: You cannot leave out `that’, `who’, or `which’ when they are the subject of the verb in the relative clause. For example, you say `The woman who lives next door is very friendly’. You do not say `The woman lives next door is very friendly’.

4 A relative pronoun in a relative clause can be the object of a preposition. Usually the preposition goes at the end of the clause.
I wanted to do the job which I’d been training for.
The house that we lived in was huge.

You can often omit a relative pronoun that is the object of a preposition.
Angela was the only person I could talk to.
She’s the girl I sang the song for.

The preposition always goes in front of `whom’, and in front of `which’ in formal English.
These are the people to whom Catherine was referring.
He was asking questions to which there were no answers.

5 You use `whose’ in relative clauses to indicate who something belongs to or relates to. You normally use `whose’ for people, not for things.
A child whose mother had left him was crying loudly.
We have only told the people whose work is relevant to this project.

6 You can use `when’, `where’, and `why’ in defining relative clauses after certain nouns. You use `when’ after `time’ or time words such as `day’ or `year’. You use `where’ after `place’ or place words such as `room’ or `street’. You use `why’ after `reason’.
There had been a time when she hated all men.
This is the year when profits should increase.
He showed me the place where they work.
That was the room where I did my homework.
There are several reasons why we can’t do that.

Next Unit

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Unit 93 Non-defining clauses

Read Time:3 Minute, 58 Second

Main points

* You use non-defining relative clauses to give extra information about the person or thing you are talking about.

* Non-defining relative clauses must be introduced by a relative pronoun such as `which’, `who’, `whom’, or `whose’.

* A non-defining relative clause comes immediately after a noun and needs a main clause to make a complete sentence.

1 You use non-defining relative clauses to give extra information about the person or thing you are talking about. The information is not needed to identify that person or thing.
Professor Marvin, who was always early, was there already.

`Who was always early’ gives extra information about Professor Marvin. This is a non-defining relative clause, because it is not needed to identify the person you are talking about. We already know that you are talking about Professor Marvin.

Note that in written English, a non-defining relative clause is usually separated from the main clause by a comma, or by two commas.
I went to the cinema with Mary, who I think you met.
British Rail, which has launched an enquiry, said one coach was badly damaged.

2 You always start a non-defining relative clause with a relative pronoun. When you are talking about people, you use `who’. `Who’ can be the subject or object of a non-defining relative clause.
Heath Robinson, who died in 1944, was a graphic artist and cartoonist.
I was in the same group as Janice, who I like a lot.

In formal English, `whom’ is sometimes used instead of `who’ as the object of a non-defining relative clause.
She was engaged to a sailor, whom she had met at Dartmouth.

3 When you are talking about things, you use `which’ as the subject or object of a non-defining relative clause.
I am teaching at the Selly Oak centre, which is just over the road.
He was a man of considerable inherited wealth, which he ultimately spent on his experiments.

WARNING: You do not normally use `that’ in non-defining relative clauses.

4 You can also use a non-defining relative clause beginning with `which’ to say something about the whole situation described in a main clause.
I never met Brando again, which was a pity.
She was a little tense, which was understandable.
Small computers need only small amounts of power, which means that they will run on small batteries.

5 When you are talking about a group of people or things and then want to say something about only some of them, you can use one of the following expressions:

many of which, many of whom, none of which, none of whom, one of which, one of whom, some of which, some of whom

He talked about several very interesting people, some of whom he was still in contact with.

6 You can use `when’ and `where’ in non-defining relative clauses after expressions of time or place.
This happened in 1957, when I was still a baby.
She has just come back from a holiday in Crete, where Alex and I went last year.

Unit 94 Participle clauses
Main points

* Nouns are followed by `-ing’ clauses that say what a person or thing is doing.

* Nouns are followed by `-ed’ clauses that show that a person or thing has been affected or caused by an action.

1 You can often give more information about a noun, or an indefinite pronoun such as `someone’ or `something’, by adding a clause beginning with an `-ing’ form, an `-ed’ form, or a `to’-infinitive.
He gestured towards the box lying on the table.
I think the idea suggested by Tim is the best one.
She wanted someone to talk to.

2 You use an `-ing’ clause after a noun to say what someone or something is doing or was doing at a particular time.
The young girl sitting opposite him was his daughter.
Most of the people strolling in the park were teenagers.

3 You can also use an `-ing’ clause after a noun to say what a person or thing does generally, rather than at a particular time.
Problems facing parents should be discussed.
The men working there were not very friendly.

4 You often use an `-ing’ clause after a noun which is the object of a verb of perception, such as `see’, `hear’, or `feel’.
See also Unit 72.

Suddenly we saw Amy walking down the path.
He heard a distant voice shouting.
I could feel something touching my face and neck , something ice-cold.

5 You use an `-ed’ clause after a noun to show that someone or something has been affected or caused by an action.
He was the new minister appointed by the President.
The man injured in the accident was taken to hospital.

Remember that not all verbs have regular `-ed’ forms.
A story written by a young girl won the competition.
She was wearing a dress bought in Paris.

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Unit 95 Adding to a noun group

Read Time:2 Minute, 26 Second

Main points

* Some adjectives can be used after nouns.

* You can use relative clauses after nouns.

* Adverbials of place and time can come after nouns.

* A noun can be followed by another noun group.

* You can use `that’-clauses after some nouns.

1 You can use some adjectives after a noun to give more information about it, but the adjectives are usually followed by a prepositional phrase, a `to’-infinitive clause, or an adverbial.
This is a warning to people eager for a quick profit.
These are the weapons likely to be used.
For a list of the facilities available here, ask the secretary.
You must talk to the people concerned.
See Unit 31 for more information on adjectives used after nouns.

2 When you want to give more precise information about the person or thing you are talking about, you can use a defining relative clause after the noun.
The man who had done it was arrested.
There are a lot of things that are wrong.
Nearly all the people I used to know have gone.

Note that you can also use defining relative clauses after indefinite pronouns such as `someone’ or `something’.
I’m talking about somebody who is really ill.
See Unit 92 for more information on defining relative clauses.

3 You can use an adverbial of place or time after a noun.
People everywhere are becoming more selfish.
This is a reflection of life today.

4 You can add a second noun group after a noun. The second noun group gives you more precise information about the first noun.
Her mother, a Canadian, died when she was six.

Note that the second noun group is separated by commas from the rest of the clause.

5 Nouns such as `advice’, `hope’, and `wish’, which refer to what someone says or thinks, can be followed by a `that’-clause. Here are some examples:

advice, agreement, belief, claim, conclusion, decision, feeling, hope, promise, threat, warning, wish

It is my firm belief that more women should stand for Parliament.
I had a feeling that no-one thought I was good enough.

Note that all these nouns are related to reporting verbs, which also take a `that’-clause. For example, `information’ is related to `inform’, and `decision’ is related to `decide’.

Some of these nouns can also be followed by a `to’-infinitive clause.

agreement, decision, hope, order, promise, threat, warning, wish

The decision to go had not been an easy one.
I reminded Barnaby of his promise to buy his son a horse.

6 A few other nouns can be followed by a `that’-clause.

advantage, confidence, danger, effect, evidence, fact, idea, impression, news, opinion, possibility, view

He didn’t want her to get the idea that he was rich.
I had no evidence that Jed was the killer.
He couldn’t believe the news that his house had just burned down.

Note that when a noun group is the object of a verb, it may be followed by different structures.
See Units 69 to 72 for more information.

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Unit 96 Time clauses

Read Time:3 Minute, 12 Second

Main points

* You use time clauses to say when something happens.

* Time clauses can refer to the past, present, or future.

* Time clauses are introduced by words such as `after’, `when’, or `while’.

* A time clause needs a main clause to make a complete sentence. The time clause can come before or after the main clause.

1 You use time clauses to say when something happens. The verb in the time clause can be in a present or a past tense.
I look after the children while she goes to London.
I haven’t given him a thing to eat since he arrived.

WARNING: You never use a future tense in a time clause. You use one of the present tenses instead.

Let me stay here till Jeannie comes to bed.
I’ll do it when I’ve finished writing this letter.

2 When you want to say that two events happen at the same time, you use a time clause with `as’, `when’, or `while’.
We arrived as they were leaving.

Sometimes the two events happen together for a period of time.
She wept bitterly as she told her story.

Sometimes one event interrupts another event.
He was having his dinner when the telephone rang.
John will arrive while we are watching the film.
Note that you often use a continuous tense for the interrupted action. See Unit 60.

3 When you want to say that one event happens before or after another event, you use a time clause with `after’, `as soon as’, `before’, or `when’.
As soon as we get tickets, we’ll send them to you.
Can I see you before you go, Helen?
When he had finished reading, he looked up.

Note that you use the past perfect to indicate an event that happened before another event in the past.

4 When you want to mention a situation which started in the past and continued until a later time, you use a time clause with `since’ or `ever since’. You use a past simple or a past perfect in the time clause, and a past perfect in the main clause.
He hadn’t cried since he was a boy of ten.
Janine had been busy ever since she had heard the news.
I’d wanted to come ever since I was a child.

If the situation started in the past and still continues now, you use a past simple in the time clause, and a present perfect in the main clause.
I’ve been in politics since I was at university.
Ever since you arrived you’ve been causing trouble.

Note that after impersonal `it’ and a time expression, if the main clause is in the present tense, you use `since’ with a past simple.
It is two weeks now since I wrote to you.

If the main clause is in the past tense, you use `since’ with a past perfect.
It was nearly seven years since I ‘d seen Toby.
For `since’ as a preposition, see Unit 40.

5 When you want to talk about when a situation ends, you use a time clause with `till’ or `until’ and a present or past tense.
We’ll support them till they find work.
I stayed there talking to them until I saw Sam.
She waited until he had gone.

6 When you want to say that something happens before or at a particular time, you use a time clause with `by the time’ or `by which time’.
By the time I went to bed, I was exhausted.
He came back later, by which time they had gone.

7 In written or formal English, if the subject of the main clause and the time clause are the same, you sometimes omit the subject in the time clause and use a participle as the verb.
I read the book before going to see the film.
The car was stolen while parked in a London street.

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Unit 97 Purpose and reason clauses

Read Time:2 Minute, 59 Second

Main points

* Purpose clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as `so’, `so as to’, `so that’, `in order to’ or `in order that’.

* Reason clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as `as’, `because’, or `in case’.

* A purpose or reason clause needs a main clause to make a complete sentence.

* A purpose clause usually comes after a main clause. A reason clause can come before or after a main clause.

1 You use a purpose clause when you are saying what someone’s intention is when they do something. The most common type of purpose clause is a `to’-infinitive clause.
The children sleep together to keep warm.
They locked the door to stop us from getting in.

Instead of using an ordinary `to’-infinitive, you often use `in order to’ or `so as to’ with an infinitive.
He was giving up his job in order to stay at home.
I keep the window open, so as to let fresh air in.

To make a purpose clause negative, you have to use `in order not to’ or `so as not to’ with an infinitive.
I would have to give myself something to do in order not to be bored.
They went on foot, so as not to be heard.

Another way of making purpose clauses negative is by using `to avoid’ with an `-ing’ form or a noun group.
I had to turn away to avoid letting him see my smile.
They drove through town to avoid the motorway.

2 Another type of purpose clause begins with `in order that’, `so’, or `so that’. These clauses usually contain a modal.

When the main clause refers to the present, you usually use `can’, `may’, `will’, or `shall’ in the purpose clause.
Any holes should be fenced so that people can’t fall down them.
I have drawn a diagram so that my explanation will be clearer.

When the main clause refers to the past, you usually use `could’, `might’, `should’, or `would’ in the purpose clause.
She said she wanted tea ready at six so she could be out by eight.
Someone lifted Philip onto his shoulder so that he might see the procession.

You use `in order that’, `so’, and `so that’, when the subject of the purpose clause is different from the subject of the main clause. For example, you say `I’ve underlined it so that it will be easier.’ You do not say `I’ve underlined it to be easier’.

3 You can also talk about the purpose of an action by using a prepositional phrase introduced by `for’.
She went out for a run.
They said they did it for fun.
I usually check, just for safety’s sake.

4 You use a reason clause when you want to explain why someone does something or why it happens. When you are simply giving the reason for something, you use `because’, `since’, or `as’.
I couldn’t see Helen’s expression, because her head was turned.
Since it was Saturday, he stayed in bed.
As he had been up since 4 am, he was very tired.
You can also use `why’ and a reported question to talk about the reason for an action. See Unit 75.

I asked him why he had come.

5 When you are talking about a possible situation which explains the reason why someone does something, you use `in case’ or `just in case’ .
I’ve got the key in case we want to go inside.
I am here just in case anything unusual happens.

WARNING: You do not use a future tense after `in case’. You do not say `I’ll stay behind in case she’ll arrive later’.

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Unit 99 Contrast clauses

Read Time:1 Minute, 57 Second

Main points

* These are clauses introduced by `although’, `in spite of’ and `though’.

* You use contrast clauses when you want to make two statements, and one statement makes the other seem surprising.

* Contrast clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as `although’, `in spite of’, or `though’.

* A contrast clause needs a main clause to make a complete sentence. The contrast clause can come before or after the main clause.

1 When you simply want to contrast two statements, you use `although’, `though’ or `even though’.
Although he was late, he stopped to buy a sandwich.
Though he has lived for years in London, he writes in German.
I used to love listening to her, even though I could only understand about half of what she said.

Sometimes you use words like `still’, `nevertheless’, or `just the same’ in the main clause to add emphasis to the contrast.
Although I was shocked, I still couldn’t blame him.
Although his company is profitable, it nevertheless needs to face up to some serious problems.
Although she hated them, she agreed to help them just the same.

When the subject of the contrast clause and the main clause are the same, you can often omit the subject and the verb `be’ in the contrast clause.
Although poor, we still have our pride. (Although we are poor…)
Though dying of cancer, he painted every day. (Though he was dying of cancer…)

2 Another way of making a contrast is to use `despite’ or `in spite of’, followed by a noun group.
Despite the difference in their ages they were close friends.
In spite of poor health, my father was always cheerful.

WARNING: You say `in spite of’ but `despite’ without `of’.

3 You can also use an `-ing’ form after `despite’ or `in spite of’.
Despite working hard, I failed my exams.
Conservative MPs are against tax rises, in spite of wanting lower inflation.

4 You can also use `despite the fact that’ or `in spite of the fact that’, followed by a clause.
Despite the fact that it sounds like science fiction, most of it is technically possible at this moment.
They ignored this order, in spite of the fact that they would probably get into trouble.

It is possible to omit `that’, especially in spoken English.
He insisted on playing, in spite of the fact he had a bad cold.

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Unit 100 Manner clauses

Read Time:2 Minute, 4 Second

Main points

* You use manner clauses to talk about how something is done.

* Manner clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as `as’, `as if’, `as though’, or `like’.

* A manner clause needs a main clause to make a complete sentence. The manner clause always comes after the main clause.

1 When you want to say how someone does something, or how something is done, you use `as’.
He behaves as he does, because his father was really cruel to him.
The bricks are still made as they were in Roman times.

You often use `just’, `exactly’, or `precisely’ in front of `as’ for emphasis.
It swims on the sea floor just as its ancestors did.
I like the freedom to plan my day exactly as I want.
Everything was going precisely as she had planned.

2 When you want to indicate that the information in the manner clause might not be true, or is definitely not true, you use `as if’ or `as though’.
Almost as if she’d read his thought, she straightened her back and returned to her seat.
Just act as though everything’s normal.

After `as if’ or `as though’, you often use a past tense even when you are talking about the present, to emphasize that the information in the manner clause is not true. In formal English, you use `were’ instead of `was’.
You talk about him as if he were dead.
It is Malcolm’s 37th birthday, but he and his mother both behave as if he were 7.

3 You also use `the way (that)’, `in a way (that)’, or `in the way (that)’ to talk about how someone does something, or how something is done.
I was never allowed to sing the way I wanted to.
They did it in a way that I had never seen before.
We make it move in the way that we want it to.

4 You can use `how’ in questions and reported questions to talk about the method used to do something, and sometimes to indicate your surprise that it was possible to do it.
`How did he get in?’ – `He broke a window.’
I wondered how he could afford a new car.
See also Unit 68 for more information on `..as if..’ and `..as though..’

Sometimes, you can use `how’ to talk about the manner in which someone does something.
I watched how he did it, then tried to copy him.
Tell me how he reacted when he saw you.

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Unit 101 Changing sentence focus

Read Time:2 Minute, 47 Second

Main points

* You can sometimes change the focus of a sentence by moving part of the sentence to the front.

* You can also change the focus of a sentence by using an expression such as `The fact is’, `The thing is’, or `The problem is’.

* You can also use impersonal `it’ to change the focus of a sentence.

1 In most affirmative clauses, the subject of the verb comes first.
They went to Australia in 1956.
I’ve no idea who it was.

However, when you want to emphasize another part of the sentence, you can put that part first instead.
In 1956 they went to Australia.
Who it was I’ve no idea.

2 One common way of giving emphasis is by placing an adverbial at the beginning of the sentence.
At eight o’clock I went down for my breakfast.
For years I’d had to hide what I was thinking.

Note that after adverbials of place and negative adverbials, you normally put the subject after the verb.
She rang the bell for Sylvia. In came a girl she had not seen before.
On no account must they be let in.

After adverbials of place, you can also put the subject before the verb. You must do so, if the subject is a pronoun.
The door opened and in she came.
He’d chosen Japan, so off we went to the Japanese Embassy.

3 When you want to say that you do not know something, you can put a reported question at the beginning of the sentence.
What I’m going to do next I don’t quite know.
How he managed I can’t imagine.

4 Another way of focusing on information is to use a structure which introduces what you want to say by using `the’ and a noun, followed by `is’. The nouns most commonly used in this way are:

answer, conclusion, fact, point, problem, question, rule, solution, thing, trouble, truth

The second part of the sentence is usually a `that’-clause or a `wh’-clause, although it can also be a `to’-infinitive clause or a noun group.
The problem is that she can’t cook.
The thing is, how are we going to get her out?
The solution is to adopt the policy which will produce the greatest benefits.
The answer is planning, timing, and, above all, practical experience.
It is also common to use a whole sentence to introduce information in following sentences. See Unit 102 for more information.

5 You can also focus on information by using impersonal `it’, followed by `be’, a noun group, and a relative clause.

The noun group can be the subject or object of the relative clause.
It was Ted who broke the news to me.
It is usually the other vehicle that suffers most.
It’s money that they want.
It was me Dookie wanted.

There are many other ways of focusing on information:
Ted was the one who broke the news to me.
Money is what we want.
What we want is money.

6 You can also focus on the information given in the other parts of a clause, or a whole clause, using impersonal `it’. In this case, the second part of the sentence is a `that’-clause.
It was from Francis that she first heard the news.
It was meeting Peter that really started me off on this new line of work.
Perhaps it’s because he’s a misfit that I get along with him.

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Unit 102 Cohesion

Read Time:2 Minute, 45 Second

Main points

* You can use pronouns and determiners to refer back to something that has already been mentioned.

* You use coordinating conjunctions to link clauses.

1 When you speak or write, you usually need to make some connection with other things that you are saying or writing. The most common way of doing this is by referring back to something that has already been mentioned.

2 One way of referring back to something is to use a personal pronoun such as `she’, `it’, or `them’, or a possessive pronoun such as `mine’ or `hers’.
My father is fat. He weighs over fifteen stone.
Mary came in. She was a good-looking woman.
`Have you been to London ?’ – `Yes, it was very crowded.’
`Have you heard of David Lodge ?’ – `Yes, I’ve just read a novel of his.’
`Would you mind moving your car , please?’ – `It’s not mine.’

3 You can also use a specific determiner such as `the’ or `his’ in front of a noun to refer back to something.
A man and a woman were walking up the hill. The man wore shorts, a T-shirt, and basketball sneakers. The woman wore a print dress.
`Thanks,’said Brody. He put the telephone down, turned out the light in his office, and walked out to his car.

4 The demonstratives `this’, `that’, `these’ and `those’ are also used to refer back to a thing or fact that has just been mentioned.
In 1973 he went on a caravan holiday . At the beginning of this holiday he began to experience pain in his chest.
There’s a lot of material there. You can use some of that.

5 The following general determiners can also be used to refer back to something:
anothereacheveryother
botheitherneither

Five officials were sacked. Another four were arrested.
There are more than two hundred and fifty species of shark, and every one is different.

6 Another common way of making connections in spoken or written English is by using one of the following coordinating conjunctions:

andnorsoyet
butorthen

Anna had to go into town and she wanted to go to Bride Street.
I asked if I could borrow her bicycle but she refused.
He was only a boy then, yet he was not afraid.

You can use a coordinating conjunction to link clauses that have the same subject. When you link clauses which have the same subject, you do not always need to repeat the subject in the second clause.
She was born in Budapest and raised in Manhattan.
He didn’t yell or scream.
When she saw Morris she went pale, then blushed.

7 Most subordinating conjunctions can also be used to link sentences together, rather than to link a subordinate clause with a main clause in the same sentence.
`When will you do it?’ – `When I get time.’
`Can I borrow your car?’ – `So long as you drive carefully.’
We send that by airmail. Therefore , it’s away on Thursday and our client gets it on Monday.

8 When people are speaking or writing, they often use words that refer back to similar words, or words that refer back to a whole sentence or paragraph.
Everything was quiet . Everywhere there was the silence of the winter night.
`What are you going to do?’ – `That’s a good question.’

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