Main points * You use `Could you’ to tell someone politely to do something. * Imperatives are not very polite. * You also use `Could you’ to ask someone politely for help. * You use `I would like’, `Would you mind’, `Do you think you could’, and `I wonder if […]

Main points * You use `could’, `couldn’t’, or `shall’ to make a suggestion. * You use `Shall we’ to suggest doing something with someone. * You use `You might like’ or `You might want’ to make polite suggestions. * You use `may as well’ or `might as well’ to suggest […]

Main points * You use `would like’ to say what you want. * You use `wouldn’t like’ to say what you do not want. * You use `would rather’ or `would sooner’ to say what you prefer. * You also use `wouldn’t mind’ to say what you want. 1 You […]

Main points * You use `Would you like’ to offer something to someone or to invite them to do something. * You use `Can I’, `Could I’, and `Shall I’ when you offer to help someone. 1 When you are offering something to someone, or inviting them to do something, […]

Main points * You use `have to’, `must’, and `mustn’t’ to talk about obligation and necessity in the present and future. * You use `had to’ to talk about obligation and necessity in the past. * You use the auxiliary `do’ with `have to’ to make questions. * You use […]

Main points * You use `need to’ to talk about necessity. * You use `don’t have to’, `don’t need to’, `haven’t got to’, or `needn’t’ to say that it is not necessary to do something. * You use `needn’t’ to give someone permission not to do something. * You use […]

Main points * You use `should’ and `ought’ to talk about mild obligation. * You use `should have’ and `ought to have’ to say that there was a mild obligation to do something in the past, but it was not done. * You can also use `had better’ to talk […]

Main points * You use defining relative clauses to say exactly which person or thing you are talking about. * Defining relative clauses are usually introduced by a relative pronoun such as `that’, `which’, `who’, `whom’, or `whose’. * A defining relative clause comes immediately after noun, and needs a […]

Main points * You use non-defining relative clauses to give extra information about the person or thing you are talking about. * Non-defining relative clauses must be introduced by a relative pronoun such as `which’, `who’, `whom’, or `whose’. * A non-defining relative clause comes immediately after a noun and […]

Main points * Some adjectives can be used after nouns. * You can use relative clauses after nouns. * Adverbials of place and time can come after nouns. * A noun can be followed by another noun group. * You can use `that’-clauses after some nouns. 1 You can use […]

Main points * You use time clauses to say when something happens. * Time clauses can refer to the past, present, or future. * Time clauses are introduced by words such as `after’, `when’, or `while’. * A time clause needs a main clause to make a complete sentence. The […]

Main points * Purpose clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as `so’, `so as to’, `so that’, `in order to’ or `in order that’. * Reason clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as `as’, `because’, or `in case’. * A purpose or reason clause needs a main clause to make […]

Main points * These are clauses introduced by `although’, `in spite of’ and `though’. * You use contrast clauses when you want to make two statements, and one statement makes the other seem surprising. * Contrast clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as `although’, `in spite of’, or `though’. * […]

Main points * You use manner clauses to talk about how something is done. * Manner clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as `as’, `as if’, `as though’, or `like’. * A manner clause needs a main clause to make a complete sentence. The manner clause always comes after the […]

Main points * You can sometimes change the focus of a sentence by moving part of the sentence to the front. * You can also change the focus of a sentence by using an expression such as `The fact is’, `The thing is’, or `The problem is’. * You can […]

Main points * You can use pronouns and determiners to refer back to something that has already been mentioned. * You use coordinating conjunctions to link clauses. 1 When you speak or write, you usually need to make some connection with other things that you are saying or writing. The […]

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