Main points * Adverbs of degree usually modify verbs. * Some adverbs of degree can modify adjectives, other adverbs, or clauses. 1 You use adverbs of degree to modify verbs. They make the verb stronger or weaker. I totally disagree. I can nearly swim. 2 Some adverbs can come in […]

Main points * This includes words like: `above’, `below’, `down’, `from’, `to’, `towards’and `up’. * You normally use prepositional phrases to say where a person or thing is, or the direction they are moving in. * You can also use adverbs and adverb phrases for place and direction. * Many […]

Main points * You use `at’ to talk about a place as a point. * You use `in’ to talk about a place as an area. * You use `on’ to talk about a place as a surface. 1 You use `at’ when you are thinking of a place as […]

Main points * Some adjectives used after link verbs can be used alone or followed by a prepositional phrase. * Some adjectives must be followed by particular prepositions. * Some adjectives can be followed by different prepositions to introduce different types of information. 1 When you use an adjective after […]

Main points * This includes phrases like: `by bus’, `in a car’, `on the plane’, and `off the train’. * You can use `by’ with most forms of transport. * You use `in’, `into’, and `out of’ with cars. * You normally use `on’, `onto’, and `off’ with other forms […]

Main points * `Of’ can be used to add many different types of information, `with’ is used to specify a quality or possession. * Some nouns are always followed by particular prepositions. 1 You can give more information about a noun by adding a prepositional phrase after it. Four men […]

Main points * Some verbs do not take an object and are normally followed by a preposition. * Some verbs take an object followed by a particular preposition. * Some verbs can take either an object or a preposition. 1 Many verbs that are used without an object are normally […]

Main points * A phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and an adverb or preposition. * The usual meaning of the verb is normally altered. * Phrasal verbs are used in four main structures. 1 Phrasal verbs are verbs that combine with adverbs or prepositions. The adverbs and […]

Main points * Intransitive verbs do not have an object. * Transitive verbs have an object. * Some verbs can be used with or without an object, depending on the situation or their meaning. 1 Many verbs do not normally have an object. They are called `intransitive’ verbs. They often […]

Main points * Some verbs have two objects, a direct object and an indirect object. * The indirect object can be used without a preposition, or after `to’ or `for’. 1 Some verbs have two objects after them, a direct object and an indirect object. For example, in the sentence […]

Main points * Transitive verbs are used with a reflexive pronoun to indicate that the object is the same as the subject, for example: `I hurt myself’. * Some verbs which do not normally have a person as the object can have reflexive pronouns as the object. 1 You use […]

Main points * Some verbs describe two people or two groups of people doing the same thing to each other, for example: `We met’, `I met you’, `We met each other’. * You use `each other’ or `one another’ for emphasis. * With some verbs, you use `each other’ or […]

Main points * Ergative verbs are both transitive and intransitive. The object of the transitive use is the subject of the intransitive use, for example: `I opened the door’, `The door opened’. * A few verbs are only ergative with particular nouns. * A few of these verbs need an […]

Main points * Examples are: `have a bath’; `give a shout’; `make promises’; `take care’. * Common verbs are often used with nouns to describe actions. * You use `have’ with nouns referring to eating, drinking, talking, and washing. * You use `give’ with nouns referring to noises, hitting, and […]

Main points * The auxiliaries `be’, `have’, and `do’ are used in forming tenses, negatives, and questions. * The auxiliary `be’ is used in forming the continuous tenses and the passive. * The auxiliary `have’ is used in forming the perfect tenses. * The auxiliary `do’ is used in making […]

Main points * There are four present tenses – present simple (`I walk’), present continuous (`I am walking’), present perfect (`I have walked’), and present perfect continuous (`I have been walking’). * All the present tenses are used to refer to a time which includes the present. * Present tenses […]

Main points * Continuous tenses describe actions which continue to happen before and after a particular time. * Continuous tenses can also indicate duration and change. 1 You use a continuous tense to indicate that an action continues to happen before and after a particular time, without stopping. You use […]

Main points * There are four past tenses – past simple (`I walked’), past continuous (`I was walking’), past perfect (`I had walked’), and past perfect continuous (`I had been walking’). * All the past tenses are used to refer to past time. * The past tenses are often used […]

Main points * You use the present perfect (`I have walked’) to relate the past to the present. * You use the past perfect (`I had walked’) to talk about a situation that occurred before a particular time in the past. 1 You use the present perfect tense when you […]

Main points * For the general present, general truths, and habitual actions, you use the present simple (`I walk’). * For something which is happening now, or for temporary situations, you use the present continuous (`I am walking’). 1 If you are talking about the present in general, you normally […]

Main points * For actions, situations, or regular events in the past, you use the past simple (`I walked’). For regular events in the past, you can also use `would’ or `used to’. * For events that happened before and after a time in the past, and for temporary situations, […]

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