Unit 43 Adverbials of degree

Read Time:2 Minute, 40 Second

Main points

* Adverbs of degree usually modify verbs.

* Some adverbs of degree can modify adjectives, other adverbs, or clauses.

1 You use adverbs of degree to modify verbs. They make the verb stronger or weaker.
I totally disagree.
I can nearly swim.

2 Some adverbs can come in front of a main verb, after a main verb, or after the object if there is one.

badlygreatlystrongly
completelyseriouslytotally

Mr Brooke strongly criticized the Bank of England.
I disagree completely with John Taylor.
That argument doesn’t convince me totally.

Some adverbs are mostly used in front of the verb.

almostlargelynearlyreallyquite

He almost crashed into a lorry.

Note that `really’ is used at the beginning of a clause to express surprise, and at the end of a clause as an adverb of manner.
Really, I didn’t know that!
He wanted it really, but was too shy to ask.

`A lot’ and `very much’ come after the main verb if there is no object, or after the object.
She helped a lot.
We liked him very much.

`Very much’ can come after the subject and in front of verbs like `want’, `prefer’, and `enjoy’.
I very much wanted to take it with me.

3 Some adverbs of degree go in front of adjectives or other adverbs and modify them.

awfullyfairlyquitereally
extremelyprettyrathervery

…a fairly large office, with filing space.

Note that you can use `rather’ before or after `a’ or `an’ followed by an adjective and a noun.
Seaford is rather a pleasant town.
It is a rather complicated story.

When `quite’ means `fairly’, you put it in front of `a’ or `an’ followed by an adjective and a noun.
My father gave me quite a large sum of money.

However, when `quite’ means `extremely’, you can put it after `a’. You can say `a quite enormous sum’.

4 You use some adverbs of degree to modify clauses and prepositional phrases.

entirelyjustlargelymainlypartlysimply

Are you saying that simply because I am here?
I don’t think it’s worth going just for a day.

5 You use `so’ and `such’ to emphasize a quality that someone or something has. `So’ can be followed by an adjective, an adverb, or a noun group beginning with `many’, `much’, `few’, or `little’.
John is so interesting to talk to.
Science is changing so rapidly.
I want to do so many different things.

`Such’ is followed by a singular noun group with `a’, or a plural noun group.
There was such a noise we couldn’t hear.
They said such nasty things .

WARNING: `So’ is never followed by a singular noun group with `a’ or a plural noun group.

6 You use `too’ when you mean `more than is necessary’ or `more than is good’. You can use `too’ before adjectives and adverbs, and before `many’, `much’, `few’, or `little’.
The prices are too high.
I’ve been paying too much tax.

You use `enough’ after adjectives and adverbs.
I waited until my daughter was old enough to read.
He didn’t work quickly enough.

Note that `enough’ is also a determiner.
We’ve got enough money to buy that car now.

7 You use emphasizing adverbs to modify adjectives such as `astonishing’, `furious’, and `wonderful’, which express extreme qualities.

absolutelyentirelypurelyreallytotally
completelyperfectlyquitesimplyutterly

I think he’s absolutely wonderful.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 44 Place and direction

Read Time:1 Minute, 47 Second

Main points

* This includes words like: `above’, `below’, `down’, `from’, `to’, `towards’and `up’.

* You normally use prepositional phrases to say where a person or thing is, or the direction they are moving in.

* You can also use adverbs and adverb phrases for place and direction.

* Many words are both prepositions and adverbs.

1 You use prepositions to talk about the place where someone or something is. Prepositions are always followed by a noun group, which is called the object of the preposition.

above, among, at, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, in, inside, near, on, opposite, outside, over, round, through, under, underneath

He stood near the door.
Two minutes later we were safely inside the taxi.

Note that some prepositions consist of more than one word.

in between, in front of, next to, on top of

There was a man standing in front of me.
The books were piled on top of each other.

2 You can also use prepositions to talk about the direction that someone or something is moving in, or the place that someone or something is moving towards.

acrossdownout ofthroughup
alongintopastto
back toontoroundtowards

They dived into the water.
She turned and rushed out of the room.

3 Many prepositions can be used both for place and direction.
The bank is just across the High Street. (place)
I walked across the room. (direction)
We live in the house over the road. (place)
I stole his keys and escaped over the wall. (direction)

4 You can also use adverbs and adverb phrases for place and direction.

abroadhereundergroundanywhere
awayindoorsupstairseverywhere
downstairsoutdoorsnowhere
downwardstheresomewhere

Sheila was here a moment ago.
Can’t you go upstairs and turn the bedroom light off?

Note that a few noun groups can also be used as adverbials of place or direction.
Steve lives next door at number 23.
I thought we went the other way last time.

5 Many words can be used as prepositions and as adverbs, with no difference in meaning. Remember that prepositions have noun groups as objects, but adverbs do not.
Did he fall down the stairs?
Please do sit down.
I looked underneath the bed, but the box had gone!
Always put a sheet of paper underneath.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 45 Place * at, in, on

Read Time:2 Minute, 46 Second

Main points

* You use `at’ to talk about a place as a point.

* You use `in’ to talk about a place as an area.

* You use `on’ to talk about a place as a surface.

1 You use `at’ when you are thinking of a place as a point in space.
She waited at the bus stop for over twenty minutes.
`Where were you last night?’ – `At Mick’s house.’

2 You also use `at’ with words such as `back’, `bottom’, `end’, `front’, and `top’ to talk about the different parts of a place.
Mrs Castle was waiting at the bottom of the stairs.
They escaped by a window at the back of the house.
I saw a taxi at the end of the street.

You use `at’ with public places and institutions. Note that you also say `at home’ and `at work’.
I have to be at the station by ten o’clock.
We landed at a small airport.
A friend of mine is at Training College.
She wanted to stay at home.

You say `at the corner’ or `on the corner’ when you are talking about streets.
The car was parked at the corner of the street.
There’s a telephone box on the corner.

You say `in the corner’ when you are talking about a room.
She put the chair in the corner of the room.

3 You use `in’ when you are talking about a place as an area. You use `in’ with:

* a country or geographical region
When I was in Spain, it was terribly cold.
A thousand homes in the east of Scotland suffered power cuts.

* a city, town, or village
I’ve been teaching at a college in London.

* a building when you are talking about people or things inside it
They were sitting having dinner in the restaurant.

You also use `in’ with containers of any kind when talking about things inside them.
She kept the cards in a little box.

4 Compare the use of `at’ and `in’ in these examples.
I had a hard day at the office. (`at’ emphasizes the office as a public place or institution)
I left my coat behind in the office. (`in’ emphasizes the office as a building)
There’s a good film at the cinema. (`at’ emphasizes the cinema as a public place)
It was very cold in the cinema. (`in’ emphasizes the cinema as a building.)

5 When talking about addresses, you use `at’ when you give the house number, and `in’ when you just give the name of the street.
They used to live at 5, Weston Road.
She got a job in Oxford Street.

Note that American English uses `on’: `He lived on Penn Street.’

You use `at’ when you are talking about someone’s house.
I’ll see you at Fred’s house.

6 You use `on’ when you are talking about a place as a surface. You can also use `on top of’.
I sat down on the sofa.
She put her keys on top of the television.

You also use `on’ when you are thinking of a place as a point on a line, such as a road, a railway line, a river, or a coastline.
Scrabster is on the north coast.
Oxford is on the A34 between Birmingham and London.
See Unit 40 for information on `at’, `in’, and `on’ in adverbials of time.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 47 Adjective + preposition

Read Time:2 Minute, 22 Second

Main points

* Some adjectives used after link verbs can be used alone or followed by a prepositional phrase.

* Some adjectives must be followed by particular prepositions.

* Some adjectives can be followed by different prepositions to introduce different types of information.

1 When you use an adjective after a link verb, you can often use the adjective on its own or followed by a prepositional phrase.
See Unit 33 for other patterns.

He was afraid.
He was afraid of his enemies.

2 Some adjectives cannot be used alone after a link verb. If they are followed by a prepositional phrase, it must have a particular preposition:

aware of, accustomed to, unaware of, unaccustomed to, fond of, used to

I’ve always been terribly fond of you.
He is unaccustomed to the heat.

3 Some adjectives can be used alone, or followed by a particular preposition:

* used alone, or with `of’ to specify the cause of a feeling

afraid, ashamed, convinced, critical, envious, frightened, jealous, proud, scared, suspicious, terrified, tired

They may feel jealous of your success.
I was terrified of her.

* used alone, or with `of’ to specify the person who has a quality

brave, careless, clever, generous, good, intelligent, kind, nice, polite, sensible, silly, stupid, thoughtful, unkind, unreasonable, wrong

That was clever of you!
I turned the job down, which was stupid of me.

* used alone or used with `to’, usually referring to:

similarity:close equal identical related similar
marriage:married engaged
loyalty:dedicated devoted loyal
rank:junior senior

My problems are very similar to yours.
He was dedicated to his job.

* used alone, or followed by `with’ to specify the cause of a feeling

bored, content, displeased, dissatisfied, impatient, impressed, pleased, satisfied

I could never be bored with football.
He was pleased with her.

* used alone, or with `at’, usually referring to:

strong reactions:alarmed amazed astonished shocked surprised
ability:bad excellent good hopeless useless

He was shocked at the hatred they had known.
She had always been good at languages.

* used alone, or with `for’ to specify the person or thing that a quality relates to

common, difficult, easy, essential, important, necessary, possible, unnecessary, unusual, usual

It’s difficult for young people on their own.
It was unusual for them to go away at the weekend.

4 Some adjectives can be used alone, or used with different prepositions.

* used alone, with an impersonal subject and `of’ and the subject of the action, or with a personal subject and `to’ and the object of the action.

cruel, friendly, generous, good, kind, mean, nasty, nice, polite, rude, unfriendly, unkind

It was rude of him to leave so suddenly.
She was rude to him for no reason.

* used alone, with `about’ to specify a thing or `with’ to specify a person

angry, annoyed, delighted, disappointed, fed up, furious, happy, upset

She was still angry about the result.
They’re getting pretty fed up with him.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 46 Transport prepositions

Read Time:1 Minute, 40 Second

Main points

* This includes phrases like: `by bus’, `in a car’, `on the plane’, and `off the train’.

* You can use `by’ with most forms of transport.

* You use `in’, `into’, and `out of’ with cars.

* You normally use `on’, `onto’, and `off’ with other forms of transport.

1 When you talk about the type of vehicle or transport you use to travel somewhere, you use `by’.

by bus, by bicycle, by car, by coach, by plane, by train

She had come by car with her husband and her four children.
I left Walsall in the afternoon and went by bus and train to Nottingham.

WARNING: If you want to say you walk somewhere, you say you go `on foot’. You do not say `by foot’.

Marie decided to continue on foot.

2 You use `in’, `into’, and `out of’ when you are talking about cars, vans, lorries, taxis, and ambulances.
I followed them in my car.
The carpets had to be collected in a van.
Mr Ward happened to be getting into his lorry.
She was carried out of the ambulance and up the steps.

3 You use `on’, `onto’, and `off’ when you are talking about other forms of transport, such as buses, coaches, trains, ships, and planes.
Why don’t you come on the train with me to New York?
Peter Hurd was already on the plane from California.
The last thing he wanted was to spend ten days on a boat with Hooper.
He jumped back onto the old bus, now nearly empty.
Mr Bixby stepped off the train and walked quickly to the exit.

You can use `in’, `into’, and `out of’ with these other forms of transport, usually when you are focusing on the physical position or movement of the person, rather than stating what form of transport they are using.
The passengers in the plane were beginning to panic.
He got back into the train quickly, before Batt could stop him.
We jumped out of the bus and ran into the nearest shop.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 48 Noun + preposition

Read Time:2 Minute, 18 Second

Main points

* `Of’ can be used to add many different types of information, `with’ is used to specify a quality or possession.

* Some nouns are always followed by particular prepositions.

1 You can give more information about a noun by adding a prepositional phrase after it.
Four men on holiday were in the car.
A sound behind him made him turn.

2 You often use the preposition `of’ after a noun to add various kinds of information. For example, you can use `of’ to indicate:

* what something is made of or consists of
…a wall of stone.
A feeling of panic was rising in him.

* what the subject matter of speech, writing, or a picture is
She gave a brief account of her interview.
There was a picture of them both in the paper.

* what a person or thing belongs to or is connected with
She was the daughter of the village priest.
The boys sat on the floor of the living room.

* what qualities a person or thing has
She was a woman of energy and ambition.
They faced problems of great complexity.

3 After nouns referring to actions, you use `of’ to indicate the subject or object of the action.
…the arrival of the police.
…the destruction of their city.

After nouns referring to people who perform an action, you use `of’ to say what the action involves or is aimed at.
…supporters of the hunger strike.
…a student of English.

Note that you often use two nouns, rather than a noun and a prepositional phrase. For example, you say `bank robbers’, not `robbers of the bank’.

4 After nouns referring to measurement, you use `of’ to give the exact figure.
…an average annual temperature of 20 degrees.
…a speed of 25 kilometres an hour.

You can use `of’ after a noun to give someone’s age.
Jonathan was a child of seven when it happened.

5 You use `with’ after a noun to say that a person or thing has a particular quality, feature, or possession.
…a girl with red hair.
…the man with the gun.

Note that you use `in’ after a noun to say what someone is wearing.
…a grey-haired man in a raincoat.
…the man in dark glasses.

6 Some nouns are usually followed by a particular preposition. Here are some examples of:

* nouns followed by `to’

alternative, answer, approach, attitude, introduction, invitation, reaction, reference, resistance, return

This was my first real introduction to Africa.

* nouns followed by `for’

admiration, desire, dislike, need, reason, respect, responsibility, search, substitute, taste, thirst

Their need for money is growing fast.

* nouns followed by `on’

agreementattackcommenteffecttax

She had a dreadful effect on me.

* nouns followed by `with’ or `between’

connectioncontactlinkrelationship

His illness had some connection with his diet.

* nouns followed by `in’

decreasedifficultyfallincreaserise

They demanded a large increase in wages.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 49 Verb + preposition

Read Time:2 Minute, 3 Second

Main points

* Some verbs do not take an object and are normally followed by a preposition.

* Some verbs take an object followed by a particular preposition.

* Some verbs can take either an object or a preposition.

1 Many verbs that are used without an object are normally followed by a prepositional phrase. Some verbs take a particular preposition:

belong to, consist of, hint at, hope for, insist on, lead to, listen to, pay for, qualify for, refer to, relate to, sympathize with

The land belongs to a rich family.
She then referred to the Minister’s report.

2 With other verbs that are used without an object, the choice of a different preposition may alter the meaning of the clause.

agree on/withapologize for/toresult from/in
appeal for/toconform to/withsuffer from/with

They agreed on a plan of action.
You agreed with me that we should buy a car.
His failure resulted from lack of attention to details.
The match resulted in a draw.

3 With verbs that are used without an object, different prepositions are used to introduce different types of information.

* `about’ indicates the subject matter

caredreamhearspeakthink
complainexplainknowtalkwrite

We will always care about freedom.
Tonight I’m going to talk about engines.

* `at’ indicates direction

glancegrinlooksmile
glarelaughshoutstare

I don’t know why he was laughing at that joke.
`Hey!’ she shouted at him.

* `for’ indicates purpose or reason

apologizeapplyasklookwait

He wanted to apologize for being late.
I’m going to wait for the next bus.

* `into’ indicates the object involved in a collision

bumpcrashdriverun

His car crashed into the wall.
She drove into the back of a lorry.

* `of’ indicates facts or information

hearknowspeaktalkthink

I’ve heard of him but I don’t know who he is.
Do you know of the new plans for the sports centre?

* `on’ indicates confidence or certainty

countdependplanrely

You can count on me.
You can rely on him to be polite.

* `to’ indicates the listener or reader

complainlistenspeakwrite
explainsaytalk

They complained to me about the noise.
Mary turned her head to speak to him.

* `with’ indicates someone whose opinion is the same or different

agreearguedisagreeside

Do you agree with me about this?
The daughters sided with their mothers.

4 Some verbs have an object, but are also followed by a preposition.
The police accused him of murder.
They borrowed some money from the bank.

Some verbs can take either an object or a prepositional phrase with no change in meaning.
He had to fight them .
He was fighting against history.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 50 Phrasal verbs

Read Time:2 Minute, 32 Second

Main points

* A phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and an adverb or preposition.

* The usual meaning of the verb is normally altered.

* Phrasal verbs are used in four main structures.

1 Phrasal verbs are verbs that combine with adverbs or prepositions. The adverbs and prepositions are called particles, for example `down’, `in’, `off’, `out’, and `up’.
She turned off the radio.
Mr Knight offered to put him up.

2 Phrasal verbs extend the usual meaning of the verb or create a new meaning. For example, if you `break’ something, you damage it, but if you `break out of’ a place, you escape from it.
They broke out of prison on Thursday night.
The pain gradually wore off.

3 Phrasal verbs are normally used in one of four main structures. In the first structure, the verb is followed by a particle, and there is no object.

break outget bylook instop off
catch ongive inring offwait up
check upgo awaystart outwatch out
come ingrow upstay upwear off

War broke out in September.
You’ll have to stay up late tonight.

4 In the second structure, the verb is followed by a particle and an object.

fall forgrow onpart withset about
feel forlook afterpick ontake after

She looked after her invalid mother.
Peter takes after his father but John is more like me.

5 In the third structure, the verb is followed by an object and a particle.

answer backcall backcount inorder about
ask incatch outinvite outtell apart

I answered him back and took my chances.
He loved to order people about.

6 Some phrasal verbs can be used in both the second structure and the third structure: verb followed by a particle and an object, or verb followed by an object and a particle.

add on, bring up, call up, fold up, hand over, knock over, point out, pull down, put away, put up, rub out, sort out, take up, tear up, throw away, try out

It took ages to clean up the mess.
It took ages to clean the mess up.
There was such a mess. It took ages to clean it up.

WARNING: If the object is a pronoun, it must go in front of the particle. You cannot say `He cleaned up it’.

7 In the fourth structure, the verb is followed by a particle and a preposition with an object.

break out of, catch up with, come down with, get on with, go down with, keep on at, look forward to, make off with, miss out on, play around with, put up with, run away with, stick up for, talk down to, walk out on

You go on ahead. I’ll catch up with you later.
Children have to learn to stick up for themselves.

8 A very few verbs are used in the structure: verb followed by an object, a particle, and a preposition with its object.

do out of, let in for, put down to, put up to, take out on, talk out of

I’ll take you up on that generous invitation.
Kroop tried to talk her out of it.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 51 Verbs and objects

Read Time:2 Minute, 36 Second

Main points

* Intransitive verbs do not have an object.

* Transitive verbs have an object.

* Some verbs can be used with or without an object, depending on the situation or their meaning.

1 Many verbs do not normally have an object. They are called `intransitive’ verbs. They often refer to:

existence:appear die disappear happen live remain
the human body:ache bleed blush faint shiver smile
human noises:cough cry laugh scream snore speak yawn
light, smell, vibration:glow shine sparkle stink throb vibrate
position, movement:arrive come depart fall flow go kneel run sit sleep stand swim wait walk work

An awful thing has happened.
The girl screamed.
I waited.

Note that intransitive verbs cannot be used in the passive.

2 Many verbs normally have an object. These verbs are called `transitive’ verbs. They are often connected with:

physical objects:build buy carry catch cover cut destroy hit own remove sell use waste wear
senses:feel hear see smell taste touch
feelings:admire enjoy fear frighten hate like love need prefer surprise trust want
facts, ideas:accept believe correct discuss expect express forget include know mean remember report
people:address blame comfort contact convince defy kill persuade please tease thank warn

He hit the ball really hard.
Did you see the rainbow?
They both enjoyed the film.
She reported the accident to the police.
Don’t blame me.

Note that transitive verbs can be used in the passive.
They were blamed for everything.

WARNING: `Have’ is a transitive verb, but cannot be used in the passive. You can say `I have a car’ but not `A car is had by me’.

3 Often, the people you are talking to know what the object is because of the situation, or because it has already been mentioned. In this case you can omit the object, even though the verb is transitive.

accept, answer, change, choose, clean, cook, draw, drive, eat, explain, forget, help, iron, know, learn, leave, paint, park, phone, read, remember, ride, sing, steal, study, type, understand, wash, watch, write

I don’t own a car. I can’t drive.
You don’t smoke, do you?
I asked a question and George answered.
Both dresses are beautiful. It’s difficult to choose.

4 Many verbs have more than one meaning, and are transitive in one meaning and intransitive in another meaning. For example, the verb `run’ is intransitive when you use it to mean `move quickly’ but transitive when you use it to mean `manage or operate’.

call, fit, lose, manage, miss, move, play, run, show, spread

The hare runs at enormous speed.
She runs a hotel.
She moved gracefully.
The whole incident had moved her profoundly.

5 A few verbs are normally intransitive, but can be used with an object that is closely related to the verb.

dance (a dance), die (a death), dream (a dream), , laugh (a laugh), live (a life), sigh (a sigh), smile (a smile)

Steve smiled his thin, cruel smile.
He appears to have lived the life of any other rich gentleman.
I once dreamed a very nice dream.

Note that you normally add more information about the object, for example by using adjectives in front of the noun.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 52 Verbs with two objects

Read Time:1 Minute, 59 Second

Main points

* Some verbs have two objects, a direct object and an indirect object.

* The indirect object can be used without a preposition, or after `to’ or `for’.

1 Some verbs have two objects after them, a direct object and an indirect object. For example, in the sentence `I gave John the book’, `the book’ is the direct object. `John’ is the indirect object. Verbs that have two objects are sometimes called `ditransitive’ verbs or `double-transitive’ verbs.
His uncle had given him books on India.
She sends you her love.
I passed him the cup.

2 When the indirect object is a pronoun, or another short noun group such as a noun with `the’, you put the indirect object in front of the direct object.
Dad gave me a car.
You promised the lad a job.
He had lent my cousin the money.
She bought Dave and me an ice cream.

3 You can also use the prepositions `to’ and `for’ to introduce the indirect object. If you do this, you put the preposition and indirect object after the direct object.
He handed his room key to the receptionist.
Bill saved a piece of cake for the children.

When the indirect object consists of several words, you normally use a preposition to introduce it.
She taught physics and chemistry to pupils at the local school.
I made that lamp for a seventy-year-old woman.

You often use a preposition when you want to emphasize the indirect object.
Did you really buy that for me?

4 With some verbs you can only use `for’, not `to’, to introduce the indirect object.

bookcutmakeprepare
buyfindpaintsave
cookkeeppourwin

They booked a place for me.
He had found some old clothes for the beggar.
They bought a present for the teacher.
She painted a picture for her father.

5 With some verbs you normally use `to’ to introduce the indirect object.

givepayreadshow
lendpostsellteach
offerpromisesendtell
pass

I had lent my bicycle to a friend.
Ralph passed a message to Jack.
They say they posted the letter to me last week.
He sold it to me.

Note that you can use `for’ with these verbs, but it has a different meaning. `For’ indicates that one person does something on behalf of another person, so that the other person does not have to do it.
His mother paid the bill for him.
If you’re going out, can you post this for me, please?

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 53 Reflexive verbs

Read Time:1 Minute, 45 Second

Main points

* Transitive verbs are used with a reflexive pronoun to indicate that the object is the same as the subject, for example: `I hurt myself’.

* Some verbs which do not normally have a person as the object can have reflexive pronouns as the object.

1 You use a reflexive pronoun after a transitive verb to indicate that the object is the same as the subject.
He blamed himself for his friend’s death.
I taught myself French.
See Unit 20 for more information on reflexive pronouns.

2 In theory, most transitive verbs can be used with a reflexive pronoun. However, you often use reflexive pronouns with the following verbs.

amusedryintroducerepeatteach
blamehelpkillrestrict
cuthurtpreparesatisfy

Sam amused himself by throwing branches into the fire.
`Can I borrow a pencil?’ – `Yes, help yourself.’
Prepare yourself for a shock.
He introduced himself to me.

3 Verbs like `dress’, `shave’, and `wash’, which describe actions that people do to themselves, do not usually take reflexive pronouns in English, although they do in some other languages. With these verbs, reflexive pronouns are only used for emphasis.
I usually shave before breakfast.
He prefers to shave himself, even with that broken arm.
She washed very quickly and rushed downstairs.
Children were encouraged to wash themselves.

4 `Behave’ does not normally take an object at all, but can take a reflexive pronoun as object.
If they don’t behave, send them to bed.
He is old enough to behave himself.

5 Some verbs do not normally have a person as object, because they describe actions that you do not do to other people. However, these verbs can have reflexive pronouns as object, because you can do these actions to yourself.

apply, compose, distance, enjoy, excel, exert, express, strain

I really enjoyed the party.
Just go out there and enjoy yourself.
She expressed surprise at the news.
Professor Dale expressed himself very forcibly.

6 When `busy’ and `content’ are used as verbs, they always take a reflexive pronoun as their direct object. They are therefore true `reflexive verbs’.
He had busied himself in the laboratory.
I had to content myself with watching the little moving lights.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 54 Reciprocal verbs

Read Time:2 Minute, 29 Second

Main points

* Some verbs describe two people or two groups of people doing the same thing to each other, for example: `We met’, `I met you’, `We met each other’.

* You use `each other’ or `one another’ for emphasis.

* With some verbs, you use `each other’ or `one another’ after `with’.

1 Some verbs refer to actions that involve two people or two groups of people doing the same thing to each other. These verbs are sometimes called `reciprocal’ verbs.
We met in Delhi.
Jane and Sarah told me that they met you.
They met each other for the first time last week.

2 The two people or groups of people involved in the action are often mentioned as the plural subject of the verb, and the verb does not have an object. For example, `John and Mary argued’ means that John argued with Mary and Mary argued with John.

argue, clash, coincide, combine, compete, fight, kiss, marry, match, meet

The pair of you have argued about that for years.
We competed furiously.
Their children are always fighting.
They kissed.

3 When you want to emphasize that both people or groups of people are equally involved, you can use the pronouns `each other’ or `one another’ as the object of the verb. Verbs that refer to actions in which there is physical contact between people are often used with `each other’ or `one another’.

cuddle, embrace, fight, hug, kiss, touch

We embraced each other.
They fought one another desperately for it.
They kissed each other in greeting.
It was the first time they had touched one another.

4 Some verbs do not take an object, so you use a preposition before `each other’ or `one another’.
They parted from each other after only two weeks.
We talk to one another as often as possible.

5 With some verbs you have a choice of preposition before `each other’ or `one another’. For example, you can `fight with’ one another or `fight against’ one another.

with/against:compete fight
with/from:part
with/to:correspond relate talk

Many countries are competing with each other.
Did you compete against each other in yesterday’s race?
Stephen and I parted with one another on good terms.
They parted from one another quite suddenly.

6 With some verbs, you can only use `with’ before `each other’ or `one another’. Note that most of these verbs refer to people talking or working together.

agree, argue, clash, collide, communicate, co-operate, disagree, quarrel

We do agree with each other sometimes.
Have they communicated with each other since then?
The two lorries collided with one another on the motorway.

7 If you want to focus on one of the people involved, you make them the subject of the verb and make the other person the object.
She married a young engineer.
You could meet me at the restaurant.

If the verb cannot take an object, you mention the other person after a preposition.
Youths clashed with police in Belfast.
She was always quarrelling with him.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 55 Ergative verbs

Read Time:2 Minute, 2 Second

Main points

* Ergative verbs are both transitive and intransitive. The object of the transitive use is the subject of the intransitive use, for example: `I opened the door’, `The door opened’.

* A few verbs are only ergative with particular nouns.

* A few of these verbs need an adverbial when they are used without an object.

1 Some verbs can be used as transitive verbs to focus on the person who performs an action, and as intransitive verbs to focus on the thing affected by the action.
When I opened the door, there was Laverne.
Suddenly the door opened.

Note that the object of the transitive verb, in this case `the door’, is the subject of the intransitive verb. Verbs like these are called `ergative’ verbs.

2 Ergative verbs often refer to:

* changes

begin, break, change, crack, dry, end, finish, grow, improve, increase, slow, start, stop, tear

I broke the glass.
The glass broke all over the floor.
The driver stopped the car.
A big car stopped.

* cooking

bake, boil, cook, defrost, fry, melt, roast, simmer

I’ve boiled an egg.
The porridge is boiling.
I’m cooking spaghetti.
The rice is cooking.

* position or movement

balance, close, drop, move, open, rest, rock, shake, stand, turn

She rested her head on his shoulder.
Her head rested on the table.
An explosion shook the hotel.
The whole room shook.

* vehicles

backdrivereversesail
crashflyrun

He had crashed the car twice.
Her car crashed into a tree.
She sailed her yacht round the world.
The ship sailed on Monday.

3 Some verbs can be used in these two ways only with a small set of nouns. For example, you can say `He fired a gun’ or `The gun fired’. You can do the same with other words referring to types of gun, `cannon’, `pistol’, or `rifle’. However, although you can say `He fired a bullet’, you cannot say `The bullet fired’.

catch:belt, cloth, clothing, dress, shirt, trousers
fire:cannon, gun, pistol, rifle
play:guitar, music, piano, violin
ring:alarm, bell
show:anger, disappointment, emotions, fear, joy
sound:alarm, bell, horn

I caught my dress on the fence.
My tights caught on a nail.
A car was sounding its horn.
A horn sounded in the night.

4 A few verbs can be used in both ways, but need an adverbial when they are used without an object.

cleanhandlepolishstain
freezemarksellwash

He sells books.
This book is selling well.
She had handled a machine gun.
This car handles very nicely.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 56 Common verb + noun patterns

Read Time:2 Minute, 19 Second

Main points

* Examples are: `have a bath’; `give a shout’; `make promises’; `take care’.

* Common verbs are often used with nouns to describe actions.

* You use `have’ with nouns referring to eating, drinking, talking, and washing.

* You use `give’ with nouns referring to noises, hitting, and talking.

* You use `make’ with nouns referring to talking, plans, and travelling.

1 When you want to talk about actions, you often use common verbs with nouns as their object. The nouns describe the action. For example, if you say `I had a shower’, the noun tells you what the action was. The common verbs have very little meaning.
I had a nice rest.
She made a remark about the weather.

The nouns often have related verbs that do not take an object.
Helen went upstairs to rest.
I remarked that it would be better if I came.

2 Different verbs are used with different nouns.

You use `have’ with nouns referring to:

meals:breakfast dinner drink lunch meal taste tea
talking:chat conversation discussion talk
washing:bath shower wash
relaxation:break holiday rest
disagreement:argument fight quarrel trouble

We usually have lunch at one o’clock.
He was having his first holiday for five years.

3 You use `give’ with nouns referring to:

human noises:cry gasp giggle groan laugh scream shout sigh whistle yell
facial expressions:grin smile
hitting:kick punch push slap
talking:advice answer example information interview lecture news report speech talk warning

Mr Sutton gave a shout of triumph.
She gave a long lecture about Roosevelt.

4 You use `make’ with nouns referring to:

talking and sounds:comment enquiry noise point promise remark sound speech suggestion
plans:arrangement choice decision plan
travelling:journey tour trip visit

He made the shortest speech I’ve ever heard.
In 1978 he made his first visit to Australia.

5 You use `take’ with these nouns:

careinterestrisk
chanceoffencetime
chargephotographtrouble
decisionresponsibilityturns

He was taking no chances.
She was prepared to take great risks.

6 You use `go’ and `come’ with `-ing’ nouns referring to sports and outdoor activities.
She goes climbing in her holidays.
Every morning, he goes jogging with Tommy.

Note that you can also use `go for’ and `come for’ with `a jog’, `a run’, `a swim’, `a walk’.
They went for a run before breakfast.

7 You use `do’ with `-ing’ nouns referring to jobs connected with the home, and nouns referring generally to work.
He wants to do the cooking.
He does all the shopping and I do the washing.
The man who did the job had ten years’ training.
He has to get up early and do a hard day’s work.

`Do’ is often used instead of more specific verbs. For example, you can say `Have you done your teeth?’ instead of `Have you brushed your teeth?’
Do I need to do my hair?

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 57 Auxiliary verbs

Read Time:2 Minute, 24 Second

Main points

* The auxiliaries `be’, `have’, and `do’ are used in forming tenses, negatives, and questions.

* The auxiliary `be’ is used in forming the continuous tenses and the passive.

* The auxiliary `have’ is used in forming the perfect tenses.

* The auxiliary `do’ is used in making negative and question forms from sentences that have a verb in a simple tense.

1 The auxiliary verbs are `be’, `have’, and `do’. They are used with a main verb to form tenses, negatives, and questions.
He is planning to get married soon.
I haven’t seen Peter since last night.
Which doctor do you want to see?

2 `Be’ as an auxiliary is used:

* with the `-ing’ form of the main verb to form continuous tenses
He is living in Germany.
They were going to phone you.

* with the past participle of the main verb to form the passive
These cars are made in Japan.
The walls of her flat were covered with posters.

3 You use `have’ as an auxiliary with the past participle to form the perfect tenses.
I have changed my mind.
I wish you had met Guy.

The present perfect continuous, the past perfect continuous, and the perfect tenses in the passive, are formed using both `have’ and `be’.
He has been working very hard recently.
She did not know how long she had been lying there.
The guest-room window has been mended.
They had been taught by a young teacher.

4 `Be’ and `have’ are also used as auxiliaries in negative sentences and questions in continuous and perfect tenses, and in the passive.
He isn’t going.
Hasn’t she seen it yet?
Was it written in English?

You use `do’ as an auxiliary to make negative and question forms from sentences that have a verb in the present simple or past simple.
He doesn’t think he can come to the party.
Do you like her new haircut?
She didn’t buy the house.
Didn’t he get the job?

Note that you can use `do’ as a main verb with the auxiliary `do’.
He didn’t do his homework.
Do they do the work themselves?

You can also use the auxiliary `do’ with `have’ as a main verb.
He doesn’t have any money.
Does anyone have a question?

You only use `do’ in affirmative sentences for emphasis or contrast.
I do feel sorry for Roger.

WARNING: You never use the auxiliary `do’ with `be’ except in the imperative.

Don’t be stupid!
Do be a good boy and sit still.

5 Some grammars include modals among the auxiliary verbs. When there is a modal in the verb group, it is always the first word in the verb group, and comes before the auxiliaries `be’ and `have’.
She might be going to Switzerland for Christmas.
I would have liked to have seen her.

Note that you never use the auxiliary `do’ with a modal.
See Units 79-91 for more information on modals.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 58 The present tenses

Read Time:2 Minute, 17 Second

Main points

* There are four present tenses – present simple (`I walk’), present continuous (`I am walking’), present perfect (`I have walked’), and present perfect continuous (`I have been walking’).

* All the present tenses are used to refer to a time which includes the present.

* Present tenses can also be used for predictions made in the present about future events.

1 There are four tenses which begin with a verb in the present tense. They are the present simple, the present continuous, the present perfect, and the present perfect continuous. These are the present tenses.

2 The present simple and the present continuous are used with reference to present time. If you are talking about the general present, or about a regular or habitual action, you use the present simple.
George lives in Birmingham.
They often phone my mother in London.

If you are talking about something in the present situation, you use the present continuous.
He’s playing tennis at the University.
I’m cooking the dinner.

The present continuous is often used to refer to a temporary situation.
She’s living in a flat at present.

3 You use the present perfect or the present perfect continuous when you are concerned with the present effects of something which happened at a time in the past, or which started in the past but is still continuing.
Have you seen the film at the Odeon?
We’ve been waiting here since before two o’clock.

4 If you are talking about something which is scheduled or timetabled to happen in the future, you can use the present simple tense.
The next train leaves at two fifteen in the morning.
It’s Tuesday tomorrow.

5 If you are talking about something which has been arranged for the future, you can use the present continuous. When you use the present continuous like this, there is nearly always a time adverbial like `tomorrow’, `next week’, or `later’ in the clause.
We’re going on holiday with my parents this year.
The Browns are having a party next week.

6 It is only in the main clauses that the choice of tense can be related to a particular time. In subordinate clauses, for example in `if’- clauses, time clauses, and defining relative clauses, present tenses often refer to a future time in relation to the time in the main clause.
You can go at five if you have finished.
Let’s have a drink before we start.
We’ll save some food for anyone who arrives late.

7 The present simple tense normally has no auxiliary verb, but questions and negative sentences are formed with the auxiliary `do’.
Do you live round here?
Does your husband do most of the cooking?
They don’t often phone during the week.
She doesn’t like being late if she can help it.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 60 The continuous tenses

Read Time:2 Minute, 31 Second

Main points

* Continuous tenses describe actions which continue to happen before and after a particular time.

* Continuous tenses can also indicate duration and change.

1 You use a continuous tense to indicate that an action continues to happen before and after a particular time, without stopping. You use the present continuous for actions which continue to happen before and after the moment of speaking.
I’m looking at the photographs my brother sent me.
They’re having a meeting.

2 When you are talking about two actions in the present tense, you use the present continuous for an action that continues to happen before and after another action that interrupts it. You use the present simple for the other action.
The phone always rings when I’m having a bath.
Friends always talk to me when I’m trying to study.

3 When you are talking about the past, you use the past continuous for actions that continued to happen before and after another action, or before and after a particular time. This is often called the `interrupted past’. You use the past simple for the other action.
He was watching television when the doorbell rang.
It was 6 o’clock. The train was nearing London.

WARNING: If two things happened one after another, you use two verbs in the past simple tense.

As soon as he saw me, he waved.

4 You can use continuous forms with modals in all their usual meanings.
See Units 79 to 91 for more information on modals.

What could he be thinking of?
They might be telling lies.

5 You use continuous tenses to express duration, when you want to emphasize how long something has been happening or will happen for.
We had been living in Athens for five years.
They’ll be staying with us for a couple of weeks.
He has been building up the business all his life.
By 1992, he will have been working for ten years.

Note that you do not have to use continuous tenses for duration.
We had lived in Africa for five years.
He worked for us for ten years.

6 You use continuous tenses to describe a state or situation that is temporary.
I’m living in London at the moment.
He’ll be working nights next week.
She’s spending the summer in Europe.

7 You use continuous tenses to show that something is changing, developing, or progressing.
Her English was improving.
The children are growing up quickly.
The video industry has been developing rapidly.

8 As a general rule, verbs which refer to actions that require a deliberate effort can be used in continuous tenses, verbs which refer to actions that do not require a deliberate effort are not used in continuous tenses.
I think it’s going to rain. (`think’ = `believe’. Believing does not require deliberate effort)
Please be quiet. I’m thinking . (`think’ = `try to solve a problem’. Trying to solve a problem does require deliberate effort)

However, many verbs are not normally used in the continuous tenses. These include verbs that refer to thinking, liking and disliking, appearance, possession, and perception.
See Unit 62 for lists of these verbs.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 59 The past tenses

Read Time:2 Minute, 33 Second

Main points

* There are four past tenses – past simple (`I walked’), past continuous (`I was walking’), past perfect (`I had walked’), and past perfect continuous (`I had been walking’).

* All the past tenses are used to refer to past time.

* The past tenses are often used as polite forms.

* The past tenses have special meanings in conditional clauses and when referring to imaginary situations.

1 There are four tenses which begin with a verb in the past tense. They are the past simple, the past continuous, the past perfect, and the past perfect continuous. These are the past tenses. They are used to refer to past time, and also to refer to imaginary situations, and to express politeness.

2 The past simple and the past continuous are used with reference to past time. You use the past simple for events which happened in the past.
I woke up early and got out of bed.

If you are talking about the general past, or about regular or habitual actions in the past, you also use the past simple.
She lived just outside London.
We often saw his dog sitting outside his house.

If you are talking about something which continued to happen before and after a particular time in the past, you use the past continuous.
They were sitting in the kitchen, when they heard the explosion.
Jack arrived while the children were having their bath.

The past continuous is often used to refer to a temporary situation.
He was working at home at the time.
Bill was using my office until I came back from America.

3 You use the past perfect and past perfect continuous tenses when you are talking about the past and you are concerned with something which happened at an earlier time, or which had started at an earlier time but was still continuing.
I had heard it was a good film so we decided to go and see it.
It was getting late. I had been waiting there since two o’clock.

4 You sometimes use a past tense rather than a present tense when you want to be more polite. For example, in the following pairs of sentences, the second one is more polite.
Do you want to see me now?
Did you want to see me now?
I wonder if you can help me.
I was wondering if you could help me.

5 The past tenses have special meanings in conditional clauses and when referring to hypothetical and imaginary situations, for example after `I wish’ or `What if…?’. You use the past simple and past continuous for something that you think is unlikely to happen.
If they saw the mess, they would be very angry.
We would tell you if we were selling the house.

You use the past perfect and past perfect continuous when you are talking about something which could have happened in the past, but which did not actually happen.
If I had known that you were coming, I would have told Jim.
They wouldn’t have gone to bed if they had been expecting you to arrive.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 61 The perfect tenses

Read Time:2 Minute, 22 Second

Main points

* You use the present perfect (`I have walked’) to relate the past to the present.

* You use the past perfect (`I had walked’) to talk about a situation that occurred before a particular time in the past.

1 You use the present perfect tense when you are concerned with the present effects of something which happened at an indefinite time in the past.
I’m afraid I’ve forgotten my book.
Have you heard from Jill recently?

Sometimes, the present effects are important because they are very recent.
Karen has just passed her exams.

You also use the present perfect when you are thinking of a time which started in the past and is still continuing.
Have you really lived here for ten years?
He has worked here since 1987.

You also use the present perfect in time clauses, when you are talking about something which will be done at some time in the future.
Tell me when you have finished.
I’ll write to you as soon as I have heard from Jenny.

2 When you want to emphasize the fact that a recent event continued to happen for some time, you use the present perfect continuous.
She’s been crying.
I’ve been working hard all day.

3 You use the past perfect tense when you are looking back from a point in past time, and you are concerned with the effects of something which happened at an earlier time in the past.
I apologized because I had forgotten my book.
He felt much happier once he had found a new job.
They would have come if we had invited them.

You also use the past perfect when you are thinking of a time which had started earlier in the past but was still continuing.
I was about twenty. I had been studying French for a couple of years.
He hated games and had always managed to avoid children’s parties.

4 You use the future perfect tense when you are looking back from a point in the future and you are talking about something which will have happened at a time between now and that future point.
In another two years, you will have left school.
Take these tablets, and in twenty-four hours the pain will have gone.

You also use the future perfect when you are looking back from the present and guessing that an action will be finished.
I’m sure they will have arrived home by now.
It’s too late to ring Don. He will have left the house by now.

5 You can also use other modals with `have’, when you are looking back from a point in time at something which you think may have happened at an earlier time.
I might have finished work by then.
He should have arrived in Paris by the time we phone.
For more information on modals with `have’, see Units 79 to 91.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 62 Talking about the present

Read Time:2 Minute, 8 Second

Main points

* For the general present, general truths, and habitual actions, you use the present simple (`I walk’).

* For something which is happening now, or for temporary situations, you use the present continuous (`I am walking’).

1 If you are talking about the present in general, you normally use the present simple tense. You use the present simple for talking about the general present including the present moment.
My dad works in Saudi Arabia.
He lives in the French Alps near the Swiss border.

2 If you are talking about general truths, you use the present simple.
Water boils at 100 degrees centigrade.
Love makes the world go round.
The bus takes longer than the train.

3 If you are talking about regular or habitual actions, you use the present simple.
Do you eat meat?
I get up early and eat my breakfast in bed.
I pay the milkman on Fridays.

4 If you are talking about something which is regarded as temporary, you use the present continuous.
Do you know if she’s still playing tennis these days?
I’m working as a British Council officer.

5 If you are talking about something which is happening now, you normally use the present continuous tense.
We’re having a meeting. Come and join in.
Wait a moment. I’m listening to the news.

6 There are a number of verbs which are used in the present simple tense even when you are talking about the present moment. These verbs are not normally used in the present continuous or the other continuous tenses. These verbs usually refer to:

thinking:believe forget imagine know realize recognize suppose think understand want wish
liking and disliking:admire dislike hate like love prefer
appearance:appear look like resemble seem
possession:belong to contain have include own possess
perception:hear see smell taste
being:be consist of exist

I believe he was not to blame.
She hates going to parties.
Our neighbours have two cars.

Note that you normally use verbs of perception with the modal `can’, rather than using the present simple tense.
I can smell gas.

Some other common verbs are not normally used in the present continuous or the other continuous tenses.

concern, deserve, fit, interest, involve, matter, mean, satisfy, surprise

What do you mean?

WARNING: Some of the verbs listed above can be used in continuous tenses in other meanings. For example, `have’ referring to possession is not used in continuous tenses. You do not say `I am having a car’. But note the following examples.

We’re having a party tomorrow.
He’s having problems with his car.
She’s having a shower.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Unit 63 Talking about the past

Read Time:3 Minute, 2 Second

Main points

* For actions, situations, or regular events in the past, you use the past simple (`I walked’). For regular events in the past, you can also use `would’ or `used to’.

* For events that happened before and after a time in the past, and for temporary situations, you use the past continuous (`I was walking’).

* For present effects of past situations, you use the present perfect (`I have walked’), and for past effects of earlier events you use the past perfect (`I had walked’).

* For future in the past, you use `would’, `was/were going to’, or the past continuous (`I was walking’).

1 When you want to talk about an event that occurred at a particular time in the past, you use the past simple.
The Prime Minister flew into New York yesterday.
The new term started last week.

You also use the past simple to talk about a situation that existed over a period of time in the past.
We spent most of our time at home last winter.
They earned their money quickly that year.

2 When you want to talk about something which took place regularly in the past, you use the past simple.
They went for picnics most weekends.
We usually spent the winter at Aunt Meg’s house.

WARNING: The past simple always refers to a time in the past. A time reference is necessary to say what time in the past you are referring to. The time reference can be established in an earlier sentence or by another speaker, but it must be established.

When you want to talk about something which occurred regularly in the past, you can use `would’ or `used to’ instead of the past simple.
We would normally spend the winter in Miami.
People used to believe that the world was flat.

WARNING: You do not normally use `would’ with this meaning with verbs which are not used in the continuous tenses.
For a list of these verbs, see Unit 62.

3 When you want to talk about something which continued to happen before and after a given time in the past, you use the past continuous.
I hurt myself when I was mending my bike.
It was midnight. She was driving home.

You also use the past continuous to talk about a temporary state of affairs in the past.
Our team were losing 2-1 at the time.
We were staying with friends in Italy.
For more information on continuous tenses, see Unit 60.

4 When you are concerned with the present effects or future effects of something which happened at an indefinite time in the past, you use the present perfect.
I’m afraid I’ve forgotten my book, so I don’t know.
Have you heard from Jill recently? How is she?

You also use the present perfect when you are thinking of a time which started in the past and still continues.
Have you ever stolen anything? (= at any time up to the present)
He has been here since six o’clock. (= and he is still here)

5 When you are looking back from a point in past time, and you are concerned with the effects of something which happened at an earlier time in the past, you use the past perfect.
I apologized because I had left my wallet at home.
They would have come if we had invited them.

6 When you want to talk about the future from a point of view in past time, you can use `would’, `was / were going to’, or the past continuous.
He thought to himself how wonderful it would taste.
Her daughter was going to do the cooking.
Mike was taking his test the week after.

0 0
Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleppy
Sleppy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %