ภาษาเขมร : កាំភ្លើងធំ
อ่านว่า : กำเพลิงธม
แปลว่า : ปืนใหญ่
អានថា : ពឺនយ៉ៃ
ภาษาอังกฤษ : artillery, cannon
ตัวอย่าง : មើលពួកម៉ាកខ្ញុំអោបកាំភ្លើងធំ។
อ่านว่า : เมิว์ล ปัวะก์ มะก์ คญม ออบ กำเพลิงธม
แปลว่า : ดูเพื่อนผมกอดปืนใหญ่
អានថា : ឌូភ់ឿនផ៎ុមកតពឺនយ៉ៃ
Tip : คำตอบของคำถามประเภทนี้หาได
จากเนื้อเรื่องมีใจความว่า “We invited Mr. Clinton, Mrs. Clinton and their children to our party tonight.” អានត-อ่านต่อ
ดังนั้น การหาคำอ้างอิงในข้อความจะช่วยให้ผู้อ่านทราบความเกี่ยวพัน ความต่อเนื่องของข้อมูลหรือรายละเอียดต่างๆ อันจะนำไปสู่ความเข้าใจในการอ่านยิ่งขึ้น
1. Demonstrative Pronouns คือ สรรพนามที่ชี้เฉพาะ ได้แก่ This , that , these , those อาจใช้แทนคำนาม กลุ่มคำ หรือประโยคก็ได้ เช่น
Mr.Jackson’s explanations are easier to understand than those of Mr. Hill.
(จากประโยคก กล่าวถึงการ អានត-อ่านต่อ
พวกเราเขียนและพูดภาษาอังกฤษไม่ค่อยได้ เพราะว่าเราถูกสอนอยู่เพียง 2 ส่วนคือ คำศัพท์ (Vocabulary) และ ไวยากรณ์ (Grammar) แต่ในความเป็นจริง คือ คำศัพท์ในภาษาอังกฤษส่วนใหญ่จะถูกใช้เป็นกลุ่มคำ ไม่ใช่นำคำศัพท์แต่ละคำมาเรียงต่อกันเป็นประโยคเหมือนภาษาไทย
“ฉันไปโรงเรียน” ฝรั่งใช้ I go to school. ไม่ใช่ I (ฉัน) go (ไป) school (โรงเรียน)
แต่ “ฉันกลับบ้าน” ฝรั่งใช้ I go home. ไม่ใช่ I go to home.
สุขสันต์วันเกิดแด่เธอ Happy birthday to you. ไม่ใช่ Happy birthday for
( แด่ สำหรับ) you.
เขาผ่านไป ฝรั่งใช้ He passed by. ไม่ใช่ He passed(ผ่าน) away (จากไป)
เพราะ “pass away” แปลว่า ล่วงลับ ตาย
เรามักใช้คำภาษาอังกฤษ แปลเป็นไทยตรงๆ จึงทำให้ฝรั่งไม่เข้าใจ ประโยคภาษาอังกฤษไม่ใช่มีเพียงแค่ ประธาน (Subject) + กริยา (Verb) + กรรม (Object)
แต่ความจริงแล้ว องค์ประกอบที่สำคัญในการแต่งประโยคภาษาอังกฤษให้ได้มาตรฐาน มี 3 ส่วน คือ
ไวยากรณ์ (Grammar) = ประโยค (Sentence)
อธิบายง่ายๆ Collocation คือ กลุ่มคำที่ต้องใช้ร่วมกัน หรือ เรียกอีกอย่างว่า “คำปรากฏร่วม” จากตัวอย่างที่ได้กล่าวมาข้างต้น “go to school”, “go home”, “Happy birthday to you”, “pass by”, “pass away” เป็น Collocation
Collocation นั้นไม่เกี่ยวกับหลักไวยากรณ์ เพราะบางกลุ่มคำถึงแม้จะวางสลับตำแหน่ง หรือใช้คำไม่ถูก แต่ ก็ไม่ผิดไวยากรณ์แต่ประการใด แต่การใช้ Collocation ผิด จะทำให้เจ้าของภาษา អានត-อ่านต่อ
ส่วนคำว่าเพื่อน ถ้าไช้เรียกเพื่อนชายจำไช้ Dude,man,dawg,dizzle
ถ้าเป็นเพื่อนชายหรือเพื่อนแถวบ้าจะไช้ homeboy, home, homie
พี่น้องชายและเพื่อนสนิทจะไช้ bro มาจาก brother
เพื่อนหลายๆคน(รวมหญิงชาย) Guys,you guys y’ll มาจากyou all peeps มาจาก people
grimme คือ give me
lemme คือ let me
wanna คือ want to
gonna คือ going to
Ima คือ I’m going to
dunno = don’t know
hafta = have to ต้อง
kinda = kind of ค่อนข้าง
gotta = got to ต้อง
gotcha = got you ไม่ต้องห่วง/เข้าใจแล้ว/ล้อเล่น
การทักทาย วัยรุ่นอเมริกันจะไช่คำว่า Holla หรือ Holler
หรือ Yo และ Hey
Vaidas : Yo, Ken.
Benji : Hey,what up?
ถ้ามีคนทักว่าWhat’s up? หรือ What up? ให้ตอบด้วยWhat’s up? หรือ What up?
What’s up? หรือ What up? ยังแปลได้ว่า สบายดีไหมด้วย
ถ้า ถามว่าWhat’s up? หรือ What up? ที่แปลว่าสบายดีไหม วัยรุ่นเค้าจะไม่ตอบว่า I’m fine มันโบราน ให้ตอบว่าJust chilling
หรือ Nothing much.
คำว่าSup?สามารถไช้แทนคำว่าWhat’s up? ได้
What’s up? ยังแปลว่า What’ wrong? ได้ด้วย
What’s up? แปลได้อีกความหมาย หมายความว่า เราเจ๋งไหม
1.Do you have time?
2.What time do you make it?
1.What’s the now?
2.Have you got the time?
3.what time is it?
4.Could/can you tell me the time please?
5.Would you mind telling the time?
Medieval manuscripts give linguists clues about more recent changes
Some of the oldest words in English have been identified, scientists say.
Reading University researchers claim “I”, “we”, “two” and “three” are among the most ancient, dating back tens of thousands of years.
Their computer model analyses the rate of change of words in English and the languages that share a common heritage.
* There are two main positions for adjectives: in front of a noun, or as the complement of a link verb.
* Most adjectives can be used in either of these positions, but some adjectives can only be used in one.
1 Most adjectives can be used in a noun group, after determiners and numbers if there are any, in front of the noun.
He had a beautiful smile.
She bought a loaf of white bread.
There was no clear evidence.
2 Most adjectives can also be used after a link verb such as `be’, `become’, or `feel’.
I felt angry.
Nobody seemed amused.
3 Some adjectives are normally used only after a link verb.
afraid, alive, alone, asleep, aware, content, due, glad, ill, ready, sorry, sure, unable, well
For example, you can say `She was glad’, but you do not talk about `a glad woman’.
I wanted to be alone.
We were getting ready for bed.
I’m not quite sure.
He didn’t know whether to feel glad or sorry.
4 Some adjectives are normally used only in front of a noun.
For example, you talk about `an atomic bomb’, but you do not say `The bomb was atomic’.
He sent countless letters to the newspapers.
This book includes a good introductory chapter on forests.
5 When you use an adjective to emphasize a strong feeling or opinion, it always comes in front of a noun.
absolute, complete, entire, outright, perfect, positive, pure, real, total, true, utter
Some of it was absolute rubbish.
He made me feel like a complete idiot.
6 Some adjectives that describe size or age can come after a noun group consisting of a number or determiner and a noun that indicates the unit of measurement.
He was about six feet tall.
The water was several metres deep.
The baby is nine months old.
Note that you do not say `two pounds heavy’, you say `two pounds in weight’.
7 A few adjectives are used alone after a noun.
designate, elect, galore, incarnate
She was now the president elect.
There are empty houses galore.
8 A few adjectives have a different meaning depending on whether they come in front of or after a noun.
concerned, involved, present, proper, responsible
For example, `the concerned mother’ means a mother who is worried, but `the mother concerned’ means the mother who has been mentioned.
It’s one of those incredibly involved stories.
The people involved are all doctors.
I’m worried about the present situation.
Of the 18 people present, I knew only one.
Her parents were trying to act in a responsible manner.
We do not know the person responsible for his death.
* Adjectives used after link verbs are often followed by `to’-infinitive clauses or `that’-clauses.
* Some adjectives are always followed by `to’-infinitive clauses.
* You often use `to’-infinitive clauses or `that’-clauses after adjectives to express feelings or opinions.
* You often use `to’-infinitive clauses after adjectives when the subject is impersonal `it’.
1 After link verbs, you often use adjectives that describe how someone feels about an action or situation. With some adjectives, you can add a `to’-infinitive clause or a `that’-clause to say what the action or situation is.
afraid, anxious, ashamed, disappointed, frightened, glad, happy, pleased, proud, sad, surprised, unhappy
If the subject is the same in both clauses, you usually use a `to’-infinitive clause. If the subject is different, you must use a `that’-clause.
I was happy to see them again.
He was happy that they were coming to the party.
You often use a `to’-infinitive clause when talking about future time in relation to the main clause.
I am afraid to go home.
He was anxious to leave before it got dark.
You often use a `that’-clause when talking about present or past time in relation to the main clause.
He was anxious that the passport was missing.
They were afraid that I might have talked to the police.
2 You often use `sorry’ with a `that’-clause. Note that `that’ is often omitted.
I’m very sorry that I can’t join you.
I’m sorry I’m so late.
3 Some adjectives are not usually used alone, but have a `to’-infinitive clause after them to say what action or situation the adjective relates to.
able, apt, bound, due, inclined, liable, likely, prepared, ready, unlikely, unwilling, willing
They were unable to help her.
They were not likely to forget it.
I am willing to try.
I’m prepared to say I was wrong.
4 When you want to express an opinion about someone or something, you often use an adjective followed by a `to’-infinitive clause.
difficult, easy, impossible, possible, right, wrong
She had been easy to deceive.
The windows will be almost impossible to open.
Am Iwrong to stay here?
Note that in the first two examples, the subject of the main clause is the object of the `to’-infinitive clause. In the third example, the subject is the same in both clauses.
5 With some adjectives, you use a `that’-clause to express an opinion about someone or something.
awful, bad, essential, extraordinary, funny, good, important, interesting, obvious, sad, true
I was sad that people had reacted in this way.
It is extraordinary that we should ever have met!
6 You can also use adjectives with `to’-infinitive clauses after `it’ as the impersonal subject. You use the preposition `of’ or `for’ to indicate the person or thing that the adjective relates to.
It was easy to find the path.
It was good of John to help me.
It was difficult for her to find a job.
See Unit 17 for `it’ as impersonal subject.
See Unit 47 for more information about adjectives followed by `of’ or `for’.
* You put opinion adjectives in front of descriptive adjectives.
* You put general opinion adjectives in front of specific opinion adjectives.
* You can sometimes vary the order of adjectives.
* If you use two or more descriptive adjectives, you put them in a particular order.
* If you use a noun in front of another noun, you put any adjectives in front of the first noun.
1 You often want to add more information to a noun than you can with one adjective. In theory, you can use the adjectives in any order, depending on the quality you want to emphasize. In practice, however, there is a normal order.
When you use two or more adjectives in front of a noun, you usually put an adjective that expresses your opinion in front of an adjective that just describes something.
You live in a nice big house.
He is a naughty little boy.
She was wearing a beautiful pink suit.
2 When you use more than one adjective to express your opinion, an adjective with a more general meaning such as `good’, `bad’, `nice’, or `lovely’ usually comes before an adjective with a more specific meaning such as `comfortable’, `clean’, or `dirty’.
I sat in a lovely comfortable armchair in the corner.
He put on a nice clean shirt.
3 You can use adjectives to describe various qualities of people or things. For example, you might want to indicate their size, their shape, or the country they come from.
Descriptive adjectives belong to six main types, but you are unlikely ever to use all six types in the same noun group. If you did, you would normally put them in the following order:
This means that if you want to use an `age’ adjective and a `nationality’ adjective, you put the `age’ adjective first.
We met some young Chinese girls.
Similarly, a `shape’ adjective normally comes before a `colour’ adjective.
He had round black eyes.
Other combinations of adjectives follow the same order. Note that `material’ means any substance, not only cloth.
There was a large round wooden table in the room.
The man was carrying a small black plastic bag.
4 You usually put comparative and superlative adjectives in front of other adjectives.
Some of the better English actors have gone to live in Hollywood.
These are the highest monthly figures on record.
5 When you use a noun in front of another noun, you never put adjectives between them. You put any adjectives in front of the first noun.
He works in the French film industry.
He receives a large weekly cash payment.
6 When you use two adjectives as the complement of a link verb, you use a conjunction such as `and’ to link them. With three or more adjectives, you link the last two with a conjunction, and put commas after the others.
The day was hot and dusty.
The room was large but square.
The house was old, damp and smelly.
We felt hot, tired and thirsty.
* Many adjectives ending in `-ing’ describe the effect that something has on someone’s feelings.
* Some adjectives ending in `-ing’ describe a process or state that continues over a period of time.
* Many adjectives ending in `-ed’ describe people’s feelings.
1 You use many `-ing’ adjectives to describe the effect that something has on your feelings, or on the feelings of people in general. For example, if you talk about `a surprising number’, you mean that the number surprises you.
He lives in a charming house just outside the town.
She always has a warm welcoming smile.
Most `-ing’ adjectives have a related transitive verb.
See Unit 51 for information on transitive verbs.
2 You use some `-ing’ adjectives to describe something that continues over a period of time.
Britain is an ageing society.
Increasing prices are making food very expensive.
These adjectives have related intransitive verbs.
See Unit 51 for information on intransitive verbs.
3 Many `-ed’ adjectives describe people’s feelings. They have the same form as the past participle of a transitive verb and have a passive meaning. For example, `a frightened person’ is a person who has been frightened by something.
She looks alarmed about something.
A bored student complained to his teacher.
She had big blue frightened eyes.
Note that the past participles of irregular verbs do not end in `-ed’, but can be used as adjectives. See pages 216-217 for a list of irregular past participles.
The bird had a broken wing.
His coat was dirty and torn.
4 Like other adjectives, `-ing’ and `-ed’ adjectives can be:
* used in front of a noun
They still show amazing loyalty to their parents.
This is the most terrifying tale ever written.
I was thanked by the satisfied customer.
The worried authorities cancelled the match.
* used after link verbs
It’s amazing what they can do.
The present situation is terrifying.
He felt satisfied with all the work he had done.
My husband was worried.
* modified by adverbials such as `quite’, `really’, and `very’
The film was quite boring.
There is nothing very surprising in this.
She was quite astonished at his behaviour.
He was a very disappointed young man.
* used in the comparative and superlative
His argument was more convincing than mine.
He became even more depressed after she died.
This is one of the most boring books I’ve ever read.
She was the most interested in going to the cinema.
5 A small number of `-ed’ adjectives are normally only used after link verbs such as `be’, `become’, or `feel’. They are related to transitive verbs, and are often followed by a prepositional phrase, a `to’-infinitive clause, or a `that’-clause.
The Brazilians are pleased with the results.
He was always prepared to account for his actions.
She was scared that they would find her.
* You add `-er’ for the comparative and `-est’ for the superlative of one-syllable adjectives and adverbs.
* You use `-er’ and `-est’ with some two-syllable adjectives.
* You use `more’ for the comparative and `most’ for the superlative of most two-syllable adjectives, all longer adjectives, and adverbs ending in `-ly’.
* Some common adjectives and adverbs have irregular forms.
1 You add `-er’ for the comparative form and `-est’ for the superlative form of one-syllable adjectives and adverbs. If they end in `-e’, you add `-r’ and `-st’.
cheap* cheaper* cheapest
safe* safer* safest
They worked harder.
I’ve found a nicer hotel.
If they end in a single vowel and consonant (except `-w’), double the consonant.
big* bigger* biggest
The day grew hotter.
Henry was the biggest of them.
2 With two-syllable adjectives and adverbs ending in a consonant and `-y’, you change the `-y’ to `-i’ and add `-er’ and `-est’.
happy* happier* happiest
It couldn’t be easier.
That is the funniest bit of the film.
3 You use `more’ for the comparative and `most’ for the superlative of most two-syllable adjectives, all longer adjectives, and adverbs ending in `-ly’.
careful* more careful* most careful
beautiful* more beautiful* most beautiful
seriously* more seriously* most seriously
Be more careful next time.
They are the most beautiful gardens in the world.
It affected Clive most seriously.
Note that for `early’ as an adjective or adverb, you use `earlier’ and `earliest’, not `more’ and `most’.
4 With some common two-syllable adjectives and adverbs you can either add `-er’ and `-est’, or use `more’ and `most’.
Note that `clever’ and `quiet’ only add `-er’ and `-est’.
It was quieter outside.
He was the cleverest man I ever knew.
5 You normally use `the’ with superlative adjectives in front of a noun, but you can omit `the’ after a link verb.
It was the happiest day of my life.
I was happiest when I was on my own.
WARNING: When `most’ is used without `the’ in front of adjectives and adverbs, it often means almost the same as `very’.
This book was most interesting.
I object most strongly.
6 A few common adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms.
good/well* better* best
bad/badly* worse* worst
far* farther/further* farthest/furthest
old* older/elder* oldest/eldest
She would ask him when she knew him better.
She sat near the furthest window.
Note that you use `elder’ or `eldest’ to say which brother, sister, or child in a family you mean.
Our eldest daughter couldn’t come.
* Comparative adjectives are used to compare people or things.
* Superlative adjectives are used to say that one person or thing has more of a quality than others in a group or others of that kind.
* Comparative adverbs are used in the same way as adjectives.
1 You use comparative adjectives to compare one person or thing with another, or with the same person or thing at another time. After a comparative adjective, you often use `than’.
She was much older than me.
I am happier than I have ever been.
2 You use a superlative to say that one person or thing has more of a quality than others in a group or others of that kind.
Tokyo is Japan’s largest city.
He was the tallest person there.
Buses are often the cheapest way of travelling.
3 You can use comparative and superlative adjectives in front of a noun.
I was a better writer than he was.
He had more important things to do.
It was the quickest route from Rome to Naples.
You can also use comparative and superlative adjectives after link verbs.
My brother is younger than me.
He feels more content now.
The sergeant was the tallest.
This book was the most interesting.
4 You can use adverbs of degree in front of comparative adjectives.
a bit, far, a great/good deal, a little, a lot, much, rather, slightly
This car’s a bit more expensive.
Now I feel a great deal more confident.
It’s a rather more complicated story than that.
You can also use adverbs of degree such as `by far’, `easily’, `much’, or `quite’ in front of `the’ and superlative adjectives.
It was by far the worst hospital I had ever seen.
She was easily the most intelligent person in the class.
Note that you can put `very’ between `the’ and a superlative adjective ending in `-est’.
It was of the very highest quality.
5 When you want to say that one situation depends on another, you can use `the’ and a comparative followed by `the’ and another comparative.
The smaller it is, the cheaper it is to post.
The larger the organisation is, the greater the problem of administration becomes.
When you want to say that something increases or decreases, you can use two comparatives linked by `and’.
It’s getting harder and harder to find a job.
Cars are becoming more and more expensive.
6 After a superlative adjective, you can use a prepositional phrase to specify the group you are talking about.
Henry was the biggest of them.
These cakes are probably the best in the world.
He was the most dangerous man in the country.
7 You use the same structures in comparisons using adverbs as those given for adjectives:
* `than’ after comparative adverbs
Prices have been rising faster than incomes.
* `the’ and a comparative adverb followed by `the’ and another comparative adverb
The quicker we finish, the sooner we will go home.
* two comparative adverbs linked by `and’
He sounded worse and worse.
He drove faster and faster till we told him to stop.
* Most adverbs of manner are formed by adding `-ly’ to an adjective, but sometimes other spelling changes are needed.
* You cannot form adverbs from adjectives that end in `-ly’.
* Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives.
* You do not use adverbs after link verbs, you use adjectives.
* Adverbials of manner are sometimes prepositional phrases or noun groups.
1 Adverbs of manner are often formed by adding `-ly’ to an adjective.
Adjectives:bad beautiful careful quick quiet soft
Adverbs:badly beautifully carefully quickly quietly softly
2 Adverbs formed in this way usually have a similar meaning to the adjective.
She is as clever as she is beautiful.
He talked so politely and danced so beautifully.
`We must not talk. We must be quiet,’ said Sita.
She wanted to sit quietly, to relax.
3 There are sometimes changes in spelling when an adverb is formed from an adjective.
`-le’ changes to `-ly’:gentle * gently
`-y’ changes to `-ily’:easy * easily
`-ic’ changes to `-ically’:automatic * automatically
`-ue’ changes to `-uly’:true * truly
`-ll’ changes to `-lly’:full * fully
Note that `public’ changes to `publicly’, not `publically’.
WARNING: You cannot form adverbs from adjectives that already end in `-ly’. For example, you cannot say `He smiled at me friendlily’. You can sometimes use a prepositional phrase instead: `He smiled at me in a friendly way’.
4 Some adverbs of manner have the same form as adjectives and have similar meanings, for example `fast’, `hard’, and `late’.
I’ve always been interested in fast cars. (adjective)
The driver was driving too fast. (adverb)
Note that `hardly’ and `lately’ are not adverbs of manner and have different meanings from the adjectives `hard’ and `late’.
It was a hard decision to make.
I hardly had any time to talk to her.
The train was late as usual.
Have you seen John lately?
5 The adverb of manner related to the adjective `good’ is `well’.
He is a good dancer.
He dances well.
Note that `well’ can sometimes be an adjective when it refers to someone’s health.
`How are you?’ – `I am very well, thank you.’
6 You do not use adverbs after link verbs such as `be’, `become’, `feel’, `get’, `look’, and `seem’. You use an adjective after these verbs. For example, you do not say `Sue felt happily’. You say `Sue felt happy’.
See Unit 73 for more information on link verbs.
7 You do not often use prepositional phrases or noun groups as adverbials of manner. However, you occasionally need to use them, for example when there is no adverb form available. The prepositional phrases and noun groups usually include a noun such as `way’, `fashion’, or `manner’, or a noun that refers to someone’s voice.
She asked me in such a nice manner that I couldn’t refuse.
He did it the right way.
They spoke in angry tones.
Prepositional phrases with `like’ are also used as adverbials of manner.
I slept like a baby.
He drove like a madman.
* This includes words like: `as…as’, `the same (as)’ and `like’.
* You use `as…as…’ to compare people or things.
* You can also compare people or things by using `the same (as)’.
* You can also compare people or things by using a link verb and a phrase beginning with `like’.
1 You use `as…as…’ to compare people or things that are similar in some way.You use `as’ and an adjective or adverb, followed by `as’ and a noun group, an adverbial, or a clause.
You’re as bad as your sister.
The airport was as crowded as ever.
I am as good as she is.
Let us examine it as carefully as we can.
2 You can make a negative comparison using `not as…as…’ or `not so…as…’.
The food wasn’t as good as yesterday.
They are not as clever as they appear to be.
He is not so old as I thought.
3 You can use the adverbs `almost’, `just’, `nearly’, or `quite’ in front of `as…as…’.
He was almost as fast as his brother.
Mary was just as pale as before.
She was nearly as tall as he was.
In a negative comparison, you can use `not nearly’ or `not quite’ before `as…as…’.
This is not nearly as complicated as it sounds.
The hotel was not quite as good as they expected.
4 When you want to say that one thing is very similar to something else, you can use `the same as’ followed by a noun group, an adverbial, or a clause.
Your bag is the same as mine.
I said the same as always.
She looked the same as she did yesterday.
If people or things are very similar or identical, you can also say that they are `the same’.
Teenage fashions are the same all over the world.
The initial stage of learning English is the same for many students.
You can use some adverbs in front of `the same as’ or `the same’.
exactlymore or lessnearlyvirtually
He did exactly the same as John did.
You two look almost the same.
You can use `the same’ in front of a noun group, with or without `as’ after the noun group.
They reached almost the same height.
It was painted the same colour as the wall.
5 You can also compare people or things by using a link verb such as `be’, `feel’, `look’, or `seem’ and a phrase beginning with `like’.
It was like a dream.
He still feels like a child.
He looked like an actor.
The houses seemed like mansions.
You can use some adverbs in front of `like’.
a bit, a little, exactly, just, least, less, more, most, quite, rather, somewhat, very
He looks just like a baby.
Of all his children, she was the one most like me.
6 If the noun group after `as’ or `like’ in any of these structures is a pronoun, you use an object pronoun or possessive pronoun.
Jane was as clever as him.
His car is the same as mine.
7 You can also use `less’ and `least’ to make comparisons with the opposite meaning to `more’ and `most’.
They were less fortunate than us.
He was the least skilled of the workers.
We see him less frequently than we used to.
* Adverbials are usually adverbs, adverb phrases, or prepositional phrases.
* Adverbials of manner, place, and time are used to say how, where, or when something happens.
* Adverbials usually come after the verb, or after the object if there is one.
* The usual order of adverbials is manner, then place, then time.
1 An adverbial is often one word, an adverb.
Sit there quietly, and listen to this music.
However, an adverbial can also be a group of words:
* an adverb phrase
He did not play well enough to win.
* a prepositional phrase
The children were playing in the park.
* a noun group, usually a time expression
Come and see me next week.
2 You use an adverbial of manner to describe the way in which something happens or is done.
They looked anxiously at each other.
She listened with great patience as he told his story.
You use an adverbial of place to say where something happens.
A plane flew overhead.
No birds or animals came near the body.
You use an adverbial of time to say when something happens.
She will be here soon.
He was born on 3 April 1925.
3 You normally put adverbials of manner, place, and time after the main verb.
She sang beautifully.
The book was lying on the table.
The car broke down yesterday.
If the verb has an object, you put the adverbial after the object.
I did learn to play a few tunes very badly.
Thomas made his decision immediately.
He took the glasses to the kitchen.
If you are using more than one of these adverbials in a clause, the usual order is manner, then place, then time.
They were sitting quite happily in the car. (manner, place)
She spoke very well at the village hall last night. (manner, place, time)
4 You usually put adverbials of frequency, probability, and duration in front of the main verb.
She occasionally comes to my house.
You have very probably heard the news by now.
They had already given me the money.
A few adverbs of degree also usually come in front of the main verb.
She really enjoyed the party.
5 When you want to focus on an adverbial, you can do this by putting it in a different place in the clause:
* you can put an adverbial at the beginning of a clause, usually for emphasis
Slowly, he opened his eyes.
In September I travelled to California.
Next to the coffee machine stood a pile of cups.
Note that after adverbials of place, as in the last example, the verb can come in front of the subject.
* you can sometimes put adverbs and adverb phrases in front of the main verb for emphasis, but not prepositional phrases or noun groups
He deliberately chose it because it was cheap.
I very much wanted to go with them.
* you can change the order of adverbials of manner, place, and time when you want to change the emphasis
They were sitting in the car quite happily. (place, manner)
At the meeting last night, she spoke very well. (place, time, manner)
* Adverbials of time can be time expressions such as `last night’.
* Adverbials of time can be prepositional phrases with `at’, `in’, or `on’.
* `For’ refers to a period of time in the past, present, or future.
* `Since’ refers to a point in past time.
1 You use adverbials of time to say when something happens. You often use noun groups called time expressions as adverbials of time.
yesterdaylast nightnext Saturdaythe day after tomorrow
todaylast yearnext weekthe other day
Note that you do not use the prepositions `at’, `in’, or `on’ with time expressions.
One of my children wrote to me today.
So, you’re coming back next week?
You often use time expressions with verbs in the present tense to talk about the future.
The plane leaves tomorrow morning.
They’re coming next week.
2 You can use prepositional phrases as adverbials of time:
* `at’ is used with:
clock times:at eight o’clock, at three fifteen
religious festivals:at Christmas, at Easter
mealtimes:at breakfast, at lunchtimes
specific periods:at night, at the weekend, at weekends, at half-term
* `in’ is used with:
seasons:in autumn, in the spring
years and centuries:in 1985, in the year 2000, in the nineteenth century
months:in July, in December
parts of the day:in the morning, in the evenings
Note that you also use `in’ to say that something will happen during or after a period of time in the future.
I think we’ll find out in the next few days.
* `on’ is used with:
days:on Monday, on Tuesday morning, on Sunday evenings
special days:on Christmas Day, on my birthday, on his wedding anniversary
dates:on the twentieth of July, on June 21st
3 You use `for’ with verbs in any tense to say how long something continues to happen.
He is in Italy for a month.
I remained silent for a long time.
I will be in London for three months.
WARNING: You do not use `during’ to say how long something continues to happen. You cannot say `I went there during three weeks’.
4 You use `since’ with a verb in the present perfect or past perfect tense to say when something started to happen.
Marilyn has lived in Paris since 1984.
I had eaten nothing since breakfast.
5 You can use many other prepositional phrases as adverbials of time. You use:
* `during’ and `over’ for a period of time in which something happens
I saw him twice during the holidays.
Will you stay here over Christmas?
* `from…to/till/until’ and `between…and’ for the beginning and end of a period of time
The building is closed from April to May.
She worked from four o’clock till ten o’clock.
Can you take the test between now and June?
* `by’ when you mean `not later than’
By eleven o’clock, Brody was back in his office.
Can we get this finished by tomorrow?
* `before’ and `after’
I saw him before the match.
She left the house after ten o’clock.
`Since’, `till’, `until’, `after’, and `before’ can also be conjunctions with time clauses.
See Unit 96.
I’ve been wearing glasses since I was three.
6 You use the adverb `ago’ with the past simple to say how long before the time of speaking something happened. You always put `ago’ after the period of time.
We saw him about a month ago.
John’s wife died five years ago.
WARNING: You do not use `ago’ with the present perfect tense. You cannot say `We have gone to Spain two years ago’.
* This includes words like: `always’, `ever’, `never’, `perhaps’, `possibly’ and `probably’.
* Adverbials of frequency are used to say how often something happens.
* Adverbials of probability are used to say how sure you are about something.
* These adverbials usually come before the main verb, but they come after `be’ as a main verb.
1 You use adverbials of frequency to say how often something happens.
a lot, always, ever, frequently, hardly ever, never, normally, occasionally, often, rarely, sometimes, usually
We often swam in the sea.
She never comes to my parties.
2 You use adverbials of probability to say how sure you are about something.
I definitely saw her yesterday.
The driver probably knows the quickest route.
3 You usually put adverbials of frequency and probability before the main verb and after an auxiliary or a modal.
He sometimes works downstairs in the kitchen.
You are definitely wasting your time.
I have never had such a horrible meal!
I shall never forget this day.
Note that you usually put them after `be’ as a main verb.
He is always careful with his money.
You are probably right.
`Perhaps’ usually comes at the beginning of the sentence.
Perhaps the beaches are cleaner in the north.
Perhaps you need a membership card to get in.
`A lot’ always comes after the main verb.
I go swimming a lot in the summer.
4 `Never’ is a negative adverb.
She never goes abroad.
I’ve never been to Europe.
You normally use `ever’ in questions, negative sentences, and `if’-clauses.
Have you ever been to a football match?
Don’t ever do that again!
If you ever need anything, just call me.
Note that you can sometimes use `ever’ in affirmative sentences, for example after a superlative.
She is the best dancer I have ever seen.
You use `hardly ever’ in affirmative sentences to mean almost never.
We hardly ever meet.
* `Already’ is used to say that something has happened earlier than expected.
* `Still’ is used to say that something continues to happen until a particular time.
* `Yet’ is used to say that something has not happened before a particular time.
* `Any longer’, `any more’, `no longer’, and `no more’ are used to say that something has stopped happening.
1 You use adverbials of duration to say that an event or situation is continuing, stopping, or is not happening at the moment.
She still lives in London.
I couldn’t stand it any more.
It isn’t dark yet.
2 You use `already’ to say that something has happened sooner than it was expected to happen. You put `already’ in front of the main verb.
He had already bought the cups and saucers.
I’ve already seen them.
The guests were already coming in.
You put `already’ after `be’ as a main verb.
Julie was already in bed.
You can also use `already’ to emphasize that something is the case, for example when someone else does not know or is not sure.
I am already aware of that problem.
You do not normally use `already’ in negative statements, but you can use it in negative `if’-clauses.
Show it to him if he hasn’t already seen it.
You can put `already’ at the beginning or end of a clause for emphasis.
Already he was calculating the profit he could make.
I’ve done it already.
3 You use `still’ to say that a situation continues to exist up to a particular time in the past, present, or future. You put `still’ in front of the main verb.
We were still waiting for the election results.
My family still live in India.
You will still get tickets, if you hurry.
You put `still’ after `be’ as a main verb.
Martin’s mother died, but his father is still alive.
You can use `still’ after the subject and before the verb group in negative sentences to express surprise or impatience.
You still haven’t given us the keys.
He still didn’t say a word.
It was after midnight, and he still wouldn’t leave.
Remember that you can use `still’ at the beginning of a clause with a similar meaning to `after all’ or `nevertheless’.
Still, he is my brother, so I’ll have to help him.
Still, it’s not too bad. We didn’t lose all the money.
4 You use `yet’ at the end of negative sentences and questions to say that something has not happened or had not happened up to a particular time, but is or was expected to happen later.
We haven’t got the tickets yet.
Have you joined the swimming club yet?
They hadn’t seen the baby yet.
Remember that `yet’ can also be used at the beginning of a clause with a similar meaning to `but’.
I don’t miss her, yet I do often wonder where she went.
They know they won’t win. Yet they keep on trying.
5 You use `any longer’ and `any more’ at the end of negative clauses to say that a past situation has ended and does not exist now or will not exist in the future.
I wanted the job, but I couldn’t wait any longer.
He’s not going to play any more.
In formal English, you can use an affirmative clause with `no longer’ and `no more’. You can put them at the end of the clause, or in front of the main verb.
He could stand the pain no more.
He no longer wanted to buy it.